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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2014, Article ID 340272, 13 pages
Research Article

Three-Dimensional Lower Extremity Joint Loading in a Carved Ski and Snowboard Turn: A Pilot Study

1Department of Health and Human Performance, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424, USA
2Department of Sport Science and Kinesiology, Christian Doppler Laboratory “Biomechanics in Skiing”, University of Salzburg, 5400 Hallein, Salzburg, Austria

Received 10 July 2014; Accepted 30 July 2014; Published 15 September 2014

Academic Editor: Eddie Y. K. Ng

Copyright © 2014 Miriam Klous et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A large number of injuries to the lower extremity occur in skiing and snowboarding. Due to the difficulty of collecting 3D kinematic and kinetic data with high accuracy, a possible relationship between injury statistic and joint loading has not been studied. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare ankle and knee joint loading at the steering leg between carved ski and snowboard turns. Kinetic data were collected using mobile force plates mounted under the toe and heel part of the binding on skies or snowboard (KISTLER). Kinematic data were collected with five synchronized, panning, tilting, and zooming cameras. An extended version of the Yeadon model was applied to calculate inertial properties of the segments. Ankle and knee joint forces and moments were calculated using inverse dynamic analysis. Results showed higher forces along the longitudinal axis in skiing and similar forces for skiing and snowboarding in anterior-posterior and mediolateral direction. Joint moments were consistently greater during a snowboard turn, but more fluctuations were observed in skiing. Hence, when comparing joint loading between carved ski and snowboard turns, one should differentiate between forces and moments, including the direction of forces and moments and the turn phase.