Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Three-Dimensional Lower Extremity Joint Loading in a Carved Ski and Snowboard Turn: A Pilot Study

Table 1

Average net ankle joint forces in medial (−)/lateral (+) direction (), anterior (+)/posterior (−) direction (), and along the longitudinal axis () and standard deviations in the steering leg in skiing and snowboarding for each of the three phases.

/ (SD)/ (SD)/ (SD)
SkiSnowboardSkiSnowboardSkiSnowboard

Phase 10.2 (0.3)−0.2 (0.2)−0.5 (0.3)−0.1 (0.1)1.0 (0.5)0.4 (0.3)
Phase 20.0 (0.1)−0.1 (0.2)−0.6 (0.2)−0.5 (0.3)1.5 (0.6)0.6 (0.3)
Phase 30.0 (0.1)−0.4 (0.2)−0.3 (0.3)−0.4 (0.2)0.6 (0.5)0.8 (0.3)