Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine / 2014 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Three-Dimensional Lower Extremity Joint Loading in a Carved Ski and Snowboard Turn: A Pilot Study

Table 3

Average net knee joint forces in medial (−)/lateral (+) direction (), anterior (+)/posterior (−) direction (), and along the longitudinal axis () and standard deviations in the steering leg in skiing and snowboarding for each of the three phases.

/ (SD)/ (SD)/ (SD)
SkiSnowboardSkiSnowboardSkiSnowboard

Phase 10.5 (0.2)−0.1 (0.1)0.7 (0.4)0.4 (0.3)0.8 (0.3)0.2 (0.1)
Phase 20.5 (0.4)−0.2 (0.3)1.1 (0.4)0.6 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)0.2 (0.1)
Phase 30.3 (0.2)−0.1 (0.3)0.4 (0.3)0.9 (0.3)0.5 (0.4)0.2 (0.2)