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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 189769, 7 pages
Research Article

A Clinical Decision Support System for the Diagnosis, Fracture Risks and Treatment of Osteoporosis

1Institute of Biomedical and Neural Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Reykjavik University, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
2Centre for Rheumatology Research, University Hospital, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
3Faculty of Medicine, Debrecen University, Debrecen 4032, Hungary
4Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
5Osteoporosis Clinic, Akureyri Hospital, 600 Akureyri, Iceland
6Department of Immunology, University Hospital, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland

Received 18 May 2014; Revised 31 August 2014; Accepted 9 October 2014

Academic Editor: Martin Grootveld

Copyright © 2015 Bjarni V. Halldorsson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Expanding medical knowledge increases the potential risk of medical errors in clinical practice. We present, OPAD, a clinical decision support system in the field of the medical care of osteoporosis. We utilize clinical information from international guidelines and experts in the field of osteoporosis. Physicians are provided with user interface to insert standard patient data, from which OPAD provides instant diagnostic comments, 10-year risk of fragility fracture, treatment options for the given case, and when to offer a follow-up DXA-evaluation. Thus, the medical decision making is standardized according to the best expert knowledge at any given time. OPAD was evaluated in a set of 308 randomly selected individuals. OPAD’s ten-year fracture risk computation is nearly identical to FRAX (r = 0.988). In 58% of cases OPAD recommended DXA evaluation at the present time. Following a DXA measurement in all individuals, 71% of those that were recommended to have DXA at the present time received recommendation for further investigation or specific treatment by the OPAD. In only 5.9% of individuals in which DXA was not recommended, the result of the BMD measurement changed the recommendations given by OPAD.