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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 284360, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/284360
Research Article

Monte Carlo Calculation of Radioimmunotherapy with 90Y-, 177Lu-, 131I-, 124I-, and 188Re-Nanoobjects: Choice of the Best Radionuclide for Solid Tumour Treatment by Using TCP and NTCP Concepts

1Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
2NAmur Research Institute for LIfe Sciences (NARILIS), University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
3Pharmacology and Therapeutics Unit (FATH), Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), 53 Avenue Mounier, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
4Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Group (REMA), Louvain Drug Research Institute, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), 73 Avenue Mounier, 1200 Brussels, Belgium
5Namur Medicine and Drug Innovation Center (NAMEDIC), University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
6Unité de Recherche en Biologie Cellulaire (URBC), University of Namur, 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur, Belgium
7Centre for Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology (MIRO), Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC), Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), 1 Dr. G. Therasse, 5530 Yvoir, Belgium

Received 8 July 2014; Accepted 27 October 2014

Academic Editor: Mario Bernal

Copyright © 2015 S. Lucas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Radioimmunotherapy has shown that the use of monoclonal antibodies combined with a radioisotope like 131I or 90Y still remains ineffective for solid and radioresistant tumour treatment. Previous simulations have revealed that an increase in the number of 90Y labelled to each antibody or nanoobject could be a solution to improve treatment output. It now seems important to assess the treatment output and toxicity when radionuclides such as 90Y, 177Lu, 131I, 124I, and 188Re are used. Tumour control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) curves versus the number of radionuclides per nanoobject were computed with MCNPX to evaluate treatment efficacy for solid tumours and to predict the incidence of surrounding side effects. Analyses were carried out for two solid tumour sizes of 0.5 and 1.0 cm radius and for nanoobject (i.e., a radiolabelled antibody) distributed uniformly or nonuniformly throughout a solid tumour (e.g., Non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC)). 90Y and 188Re are the best candidates for solid tumour treatment when only one radionuclide is coupled to one carrier. Furthermore, regardless of the radionuclide properties, high values of TCP can be reached without toxicity if the number of radionuclides per nanoobject increases.