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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Volume 2015, Article ID 395826, 9 pages
Review Article

Genetic Consequences of Antiviral Therapy on HIV-1

1Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
2Centre for Molecular Biology “Severo Ochoa”, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 28049 Madrid, Spain

Received 22 February 2015; Revised 26 May 2015; Accepted 27 May 2015

Academic Editor: Qi Dai

Copyright © 2015 Miguel Arenas. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A variety of enzyme inhibitors have been developed in combating HIV-1, however the fast evolutionary rate of this virus commonly leads to the emergence of resistance mutations that finally allows the mutant virus to survive. This review explores the main genetic consequences of HIV-1 molecular evolution during antiviral therapies, including the viral genetic diversity and molecular adaptation. The role of recombination in the generation of drug resistance is also analyzed. Besides the investigation and discussion of published works, an evolutionary analysis of protease-coding genes collected from patients before and after treatment with different protease inhibitors was included to validate previous studies. Finally, the review discusses the importance of considering genetic consequences of antiviral therapies in models of HIV-1 evolution that could improve current genotypic resistance testing and treatments design.