Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2017 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Novel Computer-Aided Approach for Parametric Investigation of Custom Design of Fracture Fixation Plates Thu, 19 Jan 2017 14:14:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/7372496/ The present study proposes an integrated computer-aided approach combining femur surface modeling, fracture evidence recover plate creation, and plate modification in order to conduct a parametric investigation of the design of custom plate for a specific patient. The study allows for improving the design efficiency of specific plates on the patients’ femur parameters and the fracture information. Furthermore, the present approach will lead to exploration of plate modification and optimization. The three-dimensional (3D) surface model of a detailed femur and the corresponding fixation plate were represented with high-level feature parameters, and the shape of the specific plate was recursively modified in order to obtain the optimal plate for a specific patient. The proposed approach was tested and verified on a case study, and it could be helpful for orthopedic surgeons to design and modify the plate in order to fit the specific femur anatomy and the fracture information. Xiaozhong Chen, Kunjin He, and Zhengming Chen Copyright © 2017 Xiaozhong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Bionic Vision-Based Intelligent Power Line Inspection System Thu, 19 Jan 2017 10:58:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/4964287/ Detecting the threats of the external obstacles to the power lines can ensure the stability of the power system. Inspired by the attention mechanism and binocular vision of human visual system, an intelligent power line inspection system is presented in this paper. Human visual attention mechanism in this intelligent inspection system is used to detect and track power lines in image sequences according to the shape information of power lines, and the binocular visual model is used to calculate the 3D coordinate information of obstacles and power lines. In order to improve the real time and accuracy of the system, we propose a new matching strategy based on the traditional SURF algorithm. The experimental results show that the system is able to accurately locate the position of the obstacles around power lines automatically, and the designed power line inspection system is effective in complex backgrounds, and there are no missing detection instances under different conditions. Qingwu Li, Yunpeng Ma, Feijia He, Shuya Xi, and Jinxin Xu Copyright © 2017 Qingwu Li et al. All rights reserved. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems Thu, 19 Jan 2017 10:22:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/2729683/ A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK) methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature. Ruqiang Zhang, Julius Osato Ehigie, Xilin Hou, Xiong You, and Chunlu Yuan Copyright © 2017 Ruqiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Shannon’s Energy Based Algorithm in ECG Signal Processing Wed, 18 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/8081361/ Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) database is electrocardiograms (ECGs) set from healthy volunteers and patients with different heart diseases. PTB is provided for research and teaching purposes by National Metrology Institute of Germany. The analysis method of complex QRS in ECG signals for diagnosis of heart disease is extremely important. In this article, a method on Shannon energy (SE) in order to detect QRS complex in 12 leads of ECG signal is provided. At first, this algorithm computes the Shannon energy (SE) and then makes an envelope of Shannon energy (SE) by using the defined threshold. Then, the signal peaks are determined. The efficiency of the algorithm is tested on 70 cases. Of all 12 standard leads, ECG signals include 840 leads of the PTB Diagnostic ECG Database (PTBDB). The algorithm shows that the Shannon energy (SE) sensitivity is equal to 99.924%, the detection error rate (DER) is equal to 0.155%, Positive Predictivity (+P) is equal to 99.922%, and Classification Accuracy (Acc) is equal to 99.846%. Hamed Beyramienanlou and Nasser Lotfivand Copyright © 2017 Hamed Beyramienanlou and Nasser Lotfivand. All rights reserved. A Removal of Eye Movement and Blink Artifacts from EEG Data Using Morphological Component Analysis Tue, 17 Jan 2017 06:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/1861645/ EEG signals contain a large amount of ocular artifacts with different time-frequency properties mixing together in EEGs of interest. The artifact removal has been substantially dealt with by existing decomposition methods known as PCA and ICA based on the orthogonality of signal vectors or statistical independence of signal components. We focused on the signal morphology and proposed a systematic decomposition method to identify the type of signal components on the basis of sparsity in the time-frequency domain based on Morphological Component Analysis (MCA), which provides a way of reconstruction that guarantees accuracy in reconstruction by using multiple bases in accordance with the concept of “dictionary.” MCA was applied to decompose the real EEG signal and clarified the best combination of dictionaries for this purpose. In our proposed semirealistic biological signal analysis with iEEGs recorded from the brain intracranially, those signals were successfully decomposed into original types by a linear expansion of waveforms, such as redundant transforms: UDWT, DCT, LDCT, DST, and DIRAC. Our result demonstrated that the most suitable combination for EEG data analysis was UDWT, DST, and DIRAC to represent the baseline envelope, multifrequency wave-forms, and spiking activities individually as representative types of EEG morphologies. Balbir Singh and Hiroaki Wagatsuma Copyright © 2017 Balbir Singh and Hiroaki Wagatsuma. All rights reserved. Intelligibility Evaluation of Pathological Speech through Multigranularity Feature Extraction and Optimization Tue, 17 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/2431573/ Pathological speech usually refers to speech distortion resulting from illness or other biological insults. The assessment of pathological speech plays an important role in assisting the experts, while automatic evaluation of speech intelligibility is difficult because it is usually nonstationary and mutational. In this paper, we carry out an independent innovation of feature extraction and reduction, and we describe a multigranularity combined feature scheme which is optimized by the hierarchical visual method. A novel method of generating feature set based on -transform and chaotic analysis is proposed. There are BAFS (430, basic acoustics feature), local spectral characteristics MSCC (84, Mel -transform cepstrum coefficients), and chaotic features (). Finally, radar chart and -score are proposed to optimize the features by the hierarchical visual fusion. The feature set could be optimized from 526 to 96 dimensions based on NKI-CCRT corpus and 104 dimensions based on SVD corpus. The experimental results denote that new features by support vector machine (SVM) have the best performance, with a recognition rate of 84.4% on NKI-CCRT corpus and 78.7% on SVD corpus. The proposed method is thus approved to be effective and reliable for pathological speech intelligibility evaluation. Chunying Fang, Haifeng Li, Lin Ma, and Mancai Zhang Copyright © 2017 Chunying Fang et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Functional Connectivity Estimated from Concatenated Task-State Data from Block-Design Paradigm with That of Continuous Task Mon, 16 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/4198430/ Functional connectivity (FC) analysis with data collected as continuous tasks and activation analysis using data from block-design paradigms are two main methods to investigate the task-induced brain activation. If the concatenated data of task blocks extracted from the block-design paradigm could provide equivalent FC information to that derived from continuous task data, it would shorten the data collection time and simplify experimental procedures, and the already collected data of block-design paradigms could be reanalyzed from the perspective of FC. Despite being used in many studies, such a hypothesis of equivalence has not yet been tested from multiple perspectives. In this study, we collected fMRI blood-oxygen-level-dependent signals from 24 healthy subjects during a continuous task session as well as in block-design task sessions. We compared concatenated task blocks and continuous task data in terms of region of interest- (ROI-) based FC, seed-based FC, and brain network topology during a short motor task. According to our results, the concatenated data was not significantly different from the continuous data in multiple aspects, indicating the potential of using concatenated data to estimate task-state FC in short motor tasks. However, even under appropriate experimental conditions, the interpretation of FC results based on concatenated data should be cautious and take the influence due to inherent information loss during concatenation into account. Yang Zhu, Lin Cheng, Naying He, Yang Yang, Huawei Ling, Hasan Ayaz, Shanbao Tong, Junfeng Sun, and Yi Fu Copyright © 2017 Yang Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Threshold Dynamics in Stochastic SIRS Epidemic Models with Nonlinear Incidence and Vaccination Mon, 16 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/7294761/ In this paper, the dynamical behaviors for a stochastic SIRS epidemic model with nonlinear incidence and vaccination are investigated. In the models, the disease transmission coefficient and the removal rates are all affected by noise. Some new basic properties of the models are found. Applying these properties, we establish a series of new threshold conditions on the stochastically exponential extinction, stochastic persistence, and permanence in the mean of the disease with probability one for the models. Furthermore, we obtain a sufficient condition on the existence of unique stationary distribution for the model. Finally, a series of numerical examples are introduced to illustrate our main theoretical results and some conjectures are further proposed. Lei Wang, Zhidong Teng, Tingting Tang, and Zhiming Li Copyright © 2017 Lei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Level Set Based Hippocampus Segmentation in MR Images with Improved Initialization Using Region Growing Sun, 15 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/5256346/ The hippocampus has been known as one of the most important structures referred to as Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders. However, segmentation of the hippocampus from MR images is still a challenging task due to its small size, complex shape, low contrast, and discontinuous boundaries. For the accurate and efficient detection of the hippocampus, a new image segmentation method based on adaptive region growing and level set algorithm is proposed. Firstly, adaptive region growing and morphological operations are performed in the target regions and its output is used for the initial contour of level set evolution method. Then, an improved edge-based level set method utilizing global Gaussian distributions with different means and variances is developed to implement the accurate segmentation. Finally, gradient descent method is adopted to get the minimization of the energy equation. As proved by experiment results, the proposed method can ideally extract the contours of the hippocampus that are very close to manual segmentation drawn by specialists. Xiaoliang Jiang, Zhaozhong Zhou, Xiaokang Ding, Xiaolei Deng, Ling Zou, and Bailin Li Copyright © 2017 Xiaoliang Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Informatics Metrics and Measures for a Smart Public Health Systems Approach: Information Science Perspective Tue, 10 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/1452415/ Public health informatics is an evolving domain in which practices constantly change to meet the demands of a highly complex public health and healthcare delivery system. Given the emergence of various concepts, such as learning health systems, smart health systems, and adaptive complex health systems, health informatics professionals would benefit from a common set of measures and capabilities to inform our modeling, measuring, and managing of health system “smartness.” Here, we introduce the concepts of organizational complexity, problem/issue complexity, and situational awareness as three codependent drivers of smart public health systems characteristics. We also propose seven smart public health systems measures and capabilities that are important in a public health informatics professional’s toolkit. Timothy Jay Carney and Christopher Michael Shea Copyright © 2017 Timothy Jay Carney and Christopher Michael Shea. All rights reserved. Assessment of Iterative Closest Point Registration Accuracy for Different Phantom Surfaces Captured by an Optical 3D Sensor in Radiotherapy Mon, 09 Jan 2017 09:09:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/2938504/ An optical 3D sensor provides an additional tool for verification of correct patient settlement on a Tomotherapy treatment machine. The patient’s position in the actual treatment is compared with the intended position defined in treatment planning. A commercially available optical 3D sensor measures parts of the body surface and estimates the deviation from the desired position without markers. The registration precision of the in-built algorithm and of selected ICP (iterative closest point) algorithms is investigated on surface data of specially designed phantoms captured by the optical 3D sensor for predefined shifts of the treatment table. A rigid body transform is compared with the actual displacement to check registration reliability for predefined limits. The curvature type of investigated phantom bodies has a strong influence on registration result which is more critical for surfaces of low curvature. We investigated the registration accuracy of the optical 3D sensor for the chosen phantoms and compared the results with selected unconstrained ICP algorithms. Safe registration within the clinical limits is only possible for uniquely shaped surface regions, but error metrics based on surface normals improve translational registration. Large registration errors clearly hint at setup deviations, whereas small values do not guarantee correct positioning. Gerald Krell, Nazila Saeid Nezhad, Mathias Walke, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, and Günther Gademann Copyright © 2017 Gerald Krell et al. All rights reserved. Reconstruction of Intima and Adventitia Models into a State Undeformed by a Catheter by Using CT, IVUS, and Biplane X-Ray Angiogram Images Thu, 05 Jan 2017 09:28:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/9807617/ The number of studies on blood flow analysis using fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis is increasing. Though a 3D blood vessel model that includes intima and adventitia is required for FSI analysis, there are difficulties in generating it using only one type of medical imaging. In this paper, we propose a 3D modeling method for accurate FSI analysis. An intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image is used with biplane X-ray angiogram images to calculate the position and orientation of the blood vessel. However, these images show that the blood vessel is deformed by the catheter inserted into the blood vessel for IVUS imaging. To eliminate such deformation, a CT image was added and the two models were registered. First, a 3D model of the undeformed intima was generated using a CT image. In the second stage, a model of intima and adventitia deformed by the catheter was generated by combining the IVUS image and the X-ray angiogram images. A 3D model of intima and adventitia with the deformation caused by insertion of the catheter eliminated was generated by matching these 3D blood vessel models in different states. In addition, a 3D blood vessel model including bifurcation was generated using the proposed method. Jinwon Son and Young Choi Copyright © 2017 Jinwon Son and Young Choi. All rights reserved. Inference of Gene Regulatory Networks Using Bayesian Nonparametric Regression and Topology Information Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:33:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/8307530/ Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) play an important role in cellular systems and are important for understanding biological processes. Many algorithms have been developed to infer the GRNs. However, most algorithms only pay attention to the gene expression data but do not consider the topology information in their inference process, while incorporating this information can partially compensate for the lack of reliable expression data. Here we develop a Bayesian group lasso with spike and slab priors to perform gene selection and estimation for nonparametric models. B-spline basis functions are used to capture the nonlinear relationships flexibly and penalties are used to avoid overfitting. Further, we incorporate the topology information into the Bayesian method as a prior. We present the application of our method on DREAM3 and DREAM4 datasets and two real biological datasets. The results show that our method performs better than existing methods and the topology information prior can improve the result. Yue Fan, Xiao Wang, and Qinke Peng Copyright © 2017 Yue Fan et al. All rights reserved. Dependency Structures in Differentially Coded Cardiovascular Time Series Tue, 03 Jan 2017 12:47:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/2082351/ Objectives. This paper analyses temporal dependency in the time series recorded from aging rats, the healthy ones and those with early developed hypertension. The aim is to explore effects of age and hypertension on mutual sample relationship along the time axis. Methods. A copula method is applied to raw and to differentially coded signals. The latter ones were additionally binary encoded for a joint conditional entropy application. The signals were recorded from freely moving male Wistar rats and from spontaneous hypertensive rats, aged 3 months and 12 months. Results. The highest level of comonotonic behavior of pulse interval with respect to systolic blood pressure is observed at time lags , 3, and 4, while a strong counter-monotonic behavior occurs at time lags and 2. Conclusion. Dynamic range of aging rats is considerably reduced in hypertensive groups. Conditional entropy of systolic blood pressure signal, compared to unconditional, shows an increased level of discrepancy, except for a time lag 1, where the equality is preserved in spite of the memory of differential coder. The antiparallel streams play an important role at single beat time lag. Tatjana Tasic, Sladjana Jovanovic, Omer Mohamoud, Tamara Skoric, Nina Japundzic-Zigon, and Dragana Bajic Copyright © 2017 Tatjana Tasic et al. All rights reserved. A Hybrid Classification System for Heart Disease Diagnosis Based on the RFRS Method Tue, 03 Jan 2017 10:53:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2017/8272091/ Heart disease is one of the most common diseases in the world. The objective of this study is to aid the diagnosis of heart disease using a hybrid classification system based on the ReliefF and Rough Set (RFRS) method. The proposed system contains two subsystems: the RFRS feature selection system and a classification system with an ensemble classifier. The first system includes three stages: (i) data discretization, (ii) feature extraction using the ReliefF algorithm, and (iii) feature reduction using the heuristic Rough Set reduction algorithm that we developed. In the second system, an ensemble classifier is proposed based on the C4.5 classifier. The Statlog (Heart) dataset, obtained from the UCI database, was used for experiments. A maximum classification accuracy of 92.59% was achieved according to a jackknife cross-validation scheme. The results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed system is superior to the performances of previously reported classification techniques. Xiao Liu, Xiaoli Wang, Qiang Su, Mo Zhang, Yanhong Zhu, Qiugen Wang, and Qian Wang Copyright © 2017 Xiao Liu et al. All rights reserved. A Fusion-Based Approach for Breast Ultrasound Image Classification Using Multiple-ROI Texture and Morphological Analyses Thu, 29 Dec 2016 10:06:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6740956/ Ultrasound imaging is commonly used for breast cancer diagnosis, but accurate interpretation of breast ultrasound (BUS) images is often challenging and operator-dependent. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can be employed to provide the radiologists with a second opinion to improve the diagnosis accuracy. In this study, a new CAD system is developed to enable accurate BUS image classification. In particular, an improved texture analysis is introduced, in which the tumor is divided into a set of nonoverlapping regions of interest (ROIs). Each ROI is analyzed using gray-level cooccurrence matrix features and a support vector machine classifier to estimate its tumor class indicator. The tumor class indicators of all ROIs are combined using a voting mechanism to estimate the tumor class. In addition, morphological analysis is employed to classify the tumor. A probabilistic approach is used to fuse the classification results of the multiple-ROI texture analysis and morphological analysis. The proposed approach is applied to classify 110 BUS images that include 64 benign and 46 malignant tumors. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity obtained using the proposed approach are 98.2%, 98.4%, and 97.8%, respectively. These results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively be used to differentiate benign and malignant tumors. Mohammad I. Daoud, Tariq M. Bdair, Mahasen Al-Najar, and Rami Alazrai Copyright © 2016 Mohammad I. Daoud et al. All rights reserved. Nonlinear Trimodal Regression Analysis of Radiodensitometric Distributions to Quantify Sarcopenic and Sequelae Muscle Degeneration Tue, 27 Dec 2016 13:33:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/8932950/ Muscle degeneration has been consistently identified as an independent risk factor for high mortality in both aging populations and individuals suffering from neuromuscular pathology or injury. While there is much extant literature on its quantification and correlation to comorbidities, a quantitative gold standard for analyses in this regard remains undefined. Herein, we hypothesize that rigorously quantifying entire radiodensitometric distributions elicits more muscle quality information than average values reported in extant methods. This study reports the development and utility of a nonlinear trimodal regression analysis method utilized on radiodensitometric distributions of upper leg muscles from CT scans of a healthy young adult, a healthy elderly subject, and a spinal cord injury patient. The method was then employed with a THA cohort to assess pre- and postsurgical differences in their healthy and operative legs. Results from the initial representative models elicited high degrees of correlation to HU distributions, and regression parameters highlighted physiologically evident differences between subjects. Furthermore, results from the THA cohort echoed physiological justification and indicated significant improvements in muscle quality in both legs following surgery. Altogether, these results highlight the utility of novel parameters from entire HU distributions that could provide insight into the optimal quantification of muscle degeneration. K. J. Edmunds, Í. Árnadóttir, M. K. Gíslason, U. Carraro, and P. Gargiulo Copyright © 2016 K. J. Edmunds et al. All rights reserved. Computational Analysis of Pumping Efficacy of a Left Ventricular Assist Device according to Cannulation Site in Heart Failure with Valvular Regurgitation Mon, 26 Dec 2016 12:36:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6930482/ Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) causes blood to flow in two directions during contraction of the left ventricle (LV), that is, forward into the aorta and backward into the left atrium (LA). In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), leakage occurs from the aorta into the LV during diastole. Our objective is to analyze the contribution of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) to MR and AR for the following two different cannulation sites: from the LA to the aorta (LAAO) and from the LV to the aorta (LVAO). Using a computational method, we simulated three ventricular conditions (normal [HF without valvular regurgitation], 5% MR, and 5% AR) in three groups (control [no LVAD], LAAO, and LVAO). The results showed that LVAD with LAAO cannulation is appropriate for recovery of the MR heart, and the LVAD with LVAO cannulation is appropriate for treating the AR heart. Aulia Khamas Heikhmakhtiar and Ki Moo Lim Copyright © 2016 Aulia Khamas Heikhmakhtiar and Ki Moo Lim. All rights reserved. Determining Cutoff Point of Ensemble Trees Based on Sample Size in Predicting Clinical Dose with DNA Microarray Data Tue, 20 Dec 2016 11:21:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6794916/ Background/Aim. Evaluating the success of dose prediction based on genetic or clinical data has substantially advanced recently. The aim of this study is to predict various clinical dose values from DNA gene expression datasets using data mining techniques. Materials and Methods. Eleven real gene expression datasets containing dose values were included. First, important genes for dose prediction were selected using iterative sure independence screening. Then, the performances of regression trees (RTs), support vector regression (SVR), RT bagging, SVR bagging, and RT boosting were examined. Results. The results demonstrated that a regression-based feature selection method substantially reduced the number of irrelevant genes from raw datasets. Overall, the best prediction performance in nine of 11 datasets was achieved using SVR; the second most accurate performance was provided using a gradient-boosting machine (GBM). Conclusion. Analysis of various dose values based on microarray gene expression data identified common genes found in our study and the referenced studies. According to our findings, SVR and GBM can be good predictors of dose-gene datasets. Another result of the study was to identify the sample size of as a cutoff point for RT bagging to outperform a single RT. Selen Yılmaz Isıkhan, Erdem Karabulut, and Celal Reha Alpar Copyright © 2016 Selen Yılmaz Isıkhan et al. All rights reserved. Registration and Summation of Respiratory-Gated or Breath-Hold PET Images Based on Deformation Estimation of Lung from CT Image Mon, 19 Dec 2016 08:16:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/9713280/ Lung motion due to respiration causes image degradation in medical imaging, especially in nuclear medicine which requires long acquisition times. We have developed a method for image correction between the respiratory-gated (RG) PET images in different respiration phases or breath-hold (BH) PET images in an inconsistent respiration phase. In the method, the RG or BH-PET images in different respiration phases are deformed under two criteria: similarity of the image intensity distribution and smoothness of the estimated motion vector field (MVF). However, only these criteria may cause unnatural motion estimation of lung. In this paper, assuming the use of a PET-CT scanner, we add another criterion that is the similarity for the motion direction estimated from inhalation and exhalation CT images. The proposed method was first applied to a numerical phantom XCAT with tumors and then applied to BH-PET image data for seven patients. The resultant tumor contrasts and the estimated motion vector fields were compared with those obtained by our previous method. Through those experiments we confirmed that the proposed method can provide an improved and more stable image quality for both RG and BH-PET images. Hideaki Haneishi, Masayuki Kanai, Yoshitaka Tamai, Atsushi Sakohira, and Kazuyoshi Suga Copyright © 2016 Hideaki Haneishi et al. All rights reserved. Defining the Optimal Region of Interest for Hyperemia Grading in the Bulbar Conjunctiva Mon, 19 Dec 2016 07:44:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3695014/ Conjunctival hyperemia or conjunctival redness is a symptom that can be associated with a broad group of ocular diseases. Its levels of severity are represented by standard photographic charts that are visually compared with the patient’s eye. This way, the hyperemia diagnosis becomes a nonrepeatable task that depends on the experience of the grader. To solve this problem, we have proposed a computer-aided methodology that comprises three main stages: the segmentation of the conjunctiva, the extraction of features in this region based on colour and the presence of blood vessels, and, finally, the transformation of these features into grading scale values by means of regression techniques. However, the conjunctival segmentation can be slightly inaccurate mainly due to illumination issues. In this work, we analyse the relevance of different features with respect to their location within the conjunctiva in order to delimit a reliable region of interest for the grading. The results show that the automatic procedure behaves like an expert using only a limited region of interest within the conjunctiva. María Luisa Sánchez Brea, Noelia Barreira Rodríguez, Antonio Mosquera González, Katharine Evans, and Hugo Pena-Verdeal Copyright © 2016 María Luisa Sánchez Brea et al. All rights reserved. Towards the Design of a Patient-Specific Virtual Tumour Mon, 19 Dec 2016 06:43:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7851789/ The design of a patient-specific virtual tumour is an important step towards Personalized Medicine. However this requires to capture the description of many key events of tumour development, including angiogenesis, matrix remodelling, hypoxia, and cell state heterogeneity that will all influence the tumour growth kinetics and degree of tumour invasiveness. To that end, an integrated hybrid and multiscale approach has been developed based on data acquired on a preclinical mouse model as a proof of concept. Fluorescence imaging is exploited to build case-specific virtual tumours. Numerical simulations show that the virtual tumour matches the characteristics and spatiotemporal evolution of its real counterpart. We achieved this by combining image analysis and physiological modelling to accurately described the evolution of different tumour cases over a month. The development of such models is essential since a dedicated virtual tumour would be the perfect tool to identify the optimum therapeutic strategies that would make Personalized Medicine truly reachable and achievable. Flavien Caraguel, Anne-Cécile Lesart, François Estève, Boudewijn van der Sanden, and Angélique Stéphanou Copyright © 2016 Flavien Caraguel et al. All rights reserved. Global Stability of Delayed Viral Infection Models with Nonlinear Antibody and CTL Immune Responses and General Incidence Rate Thu, 15 Dec 2016 15:40:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3903726/ The dynamical behaviors for a five-dimensional viral infection model with three delays which describes the interactions of antibody, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) immune responses, and nonlinear incidence rate are investigated. The threshold values for viral infection, antibody response, CTL immune response, CTL immune competition, and antibody competition, respectively, are established. Under certain assumptions, the threshold value conditions on the global stability of the infection-free, immune-free, antibody response, CTL immune response, and interior equilibria are proved by using the Lyapunov functionals method, respectively. Immune delay as a bifurcation parameter is further investigated. The numerical simulations are performed in order to illustrate the dynamical behavior of the model. Hui Miao, Zhidong Teng, and Zhiming Li Copyright © 2016 Hui Miao et al. All rights reserved. Investigating Mutations to Reduce Huntingtin Aggregation by Increasing Htt-N-Terminal Stability and Weakening Interactions with PolyQ Domain Wed, 14 Dec 2016 13:24:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6247867/ Huntington’s disease is a fatal autosomal genetic disorder characterized by an expanded glutamine-coding CAG repeat sequence in the huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 gene. The Htt protein associated with the disease misfolds into toxic oligomers and aggregate fibril structures. Competing models for the misfolding and aggregation phenomena have suggested the role of the Htt-N-terminal region and the CAG trinucleotide repeats (polyQ domain) in affecting aggregation propensities and misfolding. In particular, one model suggests a correlation between structural stability and the emergence of toxic oligomers, whereas a second model proposes that molecular interactions with the extended polyQ domain increase aggregation propensity. In this paper, we computationally explore the potential to reduce Htt aggregation by addressing the aggregation causes outlined in both models. We investigate the mutation landscape of the Htt-N-terminal region and explore amino acid residue mutations that affect its structural stability and hydrophobic interactions with the polyQ domain. Out of the millions of 3-point mutation combinations that we explored, the (L4K E12K K15E) was the most promising mutation combination that addressed aggregation causes in both models. The mutant structure exhibited extreme alpha-helical stability, low amyloidogenicity potential, a hydrophobic residue replacement, and removal of a solvent-inaccessible intermolecular side chain that assists oligomerization. Mohamed R. Smaoui, Cody Mazza-Anthony, and Jérôme Waldispühl Copyright © 2016 Mohamed R. Smaoui et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Doppler Microembolic Signals Using High Order Statistics Wed, 14 Dec 2016 11:52:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/3243290/ Robust detection of the smallest circulating cerebral microemboli is an efficient way of preventing strokes, which is second cause of mortality worldwide. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound is widely considered the most convenient system for the detection of microemboli. The most common standard detection is achieved through the Doppler energy signal and depends on an empirically set constant threshold. On the other hand, in the past few years, higher order statistics have been an extensive field of research as they represent descriptive statistics that can be used to detect signal outliers. In this study, we propose new types of microembolic detectors based on the windowed calculation of the third moment skewness and fourth moment kurtosis of the energy signal. During energy embolus-free periods the distribution of the energy is not altered and the skewness and kurtosis signals do not exhibit any peak values. In the presence of emboli, the energy distribution is distorted and the skewness and kurtosis signals exhibit peaks, corresponding to the latter emboli. Applied on real signals, the detection of microemboli through the skewness and kurtosis signals outperformed the detection through standard methods. The sensitivities and specificities reached 78% and 91% and 80% and 90% for the skewness and kurtosis detectors, respectively. Maroun Geryes, Sebastien Ménigot, Walid Hassan, Ali Mcheick, Jamal Charara, and Jean-Marc Girault Copyright © 2016 Maroun Geryes et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Sample Selection Strategy for Imbalanced Data of Biomedical Event Extraction with Joint Scoring Mechanism Wed, 14 Dec 2016 10:37:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/7536494/ Biomedical event extraction is an important and difficult task in bioinformatics. With the rapid growth of biomedical literature, the extraction of complex events from unstructured text has attracted more attention. However, the annotated biomedical corpus is highly imbalanced, which affects the performance of the classification algorithms. In this study, a sample selection algorithm based on sequential pattern is proposed to filter negative samples in the training phase. Considering the joint information between the trigger and argument of multiargument events, we extract triplets of multiargument events directly using a support vector machine classifier. A joint scoring mechanism, which is based on sentence similarity and importance of trigger in the training data, is used to correct the predicted results. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can extract events efficiently. Yang Lu, Xiaolei Ma, Yinan Lu, Yuxin Zhou, and Zhili Pei Copyright © 2016 Yang Lu et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Nodule Classification with Deep Convolutional Neural Networks on Computed Tomography Images Wed, 14 Dec 2016 09:46:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/6215085/ Computer aided detection (CAD) systems can assist radiologists by offering a second opinion on early diagnosis of lung cancer. Classification and feature representation play critical roles in false-positive reduction (FPR) in lung nodule CAD. We design a deep convolutional neural networks method for nodule classification, which has an advantage of autolearning representation and strong generalization ability. A specified network structure for nodule images is proposed to solve the recognition of three types of nodules, that is, solid, semisolid, and ground glass opacity (GGO). Deep convolutional neural networks are trained by 62,492 regions-of-interest (ROIs) samples including 40,772 nodules and 21,720 nonnodules from the Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in terms of sensitivity and overall accuracy and that it consistently outperforms the competing methods. Wei Li, Peng Cao, Dazhe Zhao, and Junbo Wang Copyright © 2016 Wei Li et al. All rights reserved. Phantom Validation of Tc-99m Absolute Quantification in a SPECT/CT Commercial Device Wed, 14 Dec 2016 09:43:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4360371/ Aim. Similar to PET, absolute quantitative imaging is becoming available in commercial SPECT/CT devices. This study’s goal was to assess quantitative accuracy of activity recovery as a function of image reconstruction parameters and count statistics in a variety of phantoms. Materials and Methods. We performed quantitative -SPECT/CT acquisitions (Siemens Symbia Intevo, Erlangen, Germany) of a uniform cylindrical, NEMA/IEC, and an anthropomorphic abdominal phantom. Background activity concentrations tested ranged: 2–80 kBq/mL. SPECT acquisitions used 120 projections (20 s/projection). Reconstructions were performed with the proprietary iterative conjugate gradient algorithm. NEMA phantom reconstructions were obtained as a function of the iteration number (range: 4–48). Recovery coefficients, hot contrast, relative lung error (NEMA phantom), and image noise were assessed. Results. In all cases, absolute activity and activity concentration were measured within 10% of the expected value. Recovery coefficients and hot contrast in hot inserts did not vary appreciably with count statistics. RC converged at 16 iterations for insert size > 22 mm. Relative lung errors were comparable to PET levels indicating the efficient integration of attenuation and scatter corrections with adequate detector modeling. Conclusions. The tested device provided accurate activity recovery within 10% of correct values; these performances are comparable to current generation PET/CT systems. Silvano Gnesin, Paulo Leite Ferreira, Jerome Malterre, Priscille Laub, John O. Prior, and Francis R. Verdun Copyright © 2016 Silvano Gnesin et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Investigation into Cellular Mechanisms of Cardiac Alternans in Myocardial Ischemia Tue, 13 Dec 2016 08:12:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/4310634/ Myocardial ischemia is associated with pathophysiological conditions such as hyperkalemia, acidosis, and hypoxia. These physiological disorders may lead to changes on the functions of ionic channels, which in turn form the basis for cardiac alternans. In this paper, we investigated the roles of hyperkalemia and calcium handling components played in the genesis of alternans in ischemia at the cellular level by using computational simulations. The results show that hyperkalemic reduced cell excitability and delayed recovery from inactivation of depolarization currents. The inactivation time constant of L-type calcium current () increased obviously in hyperkalemia. One cycle length was not enough for to recover completely. Alternans developed as a result of responding to stimulation every other beat. Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase (SERCA2a) function decreased in ischemia. This change resulted in intracellular Ca () alternans of small magnitude. A strong Na+-Ca2+ exchange current () increased the magnitude of alternans, leading to APD alternans through excitation-contraction coupling. Some alternated repolarization currents contributed to this repolarization alternans. Jiaqi Liu, Yinglan Gong, Ling Xia, and Xiaopeng Zhao Copyright © 2016 Jiaqi Liu et al. All rights reserved. Localized Patch-Based Fuzzy Active Contours for Image Segmentation Tue, 13 Dec 2016 06:49:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cmmm/2016/1064692/ This paper presents a novel fuzzy region-based active contour model for image segmentation. By incorporating local patch-energy functional along each pixel of the evolving curve into the fuzziness of the energy, we construct a patch-based energy function without the regurgitation term. Its purpose is not only to make the active contour evolve very stably without the periodical initialization during the evolution but also to reduce the effect of noise. In particular, in order to reject local minimal of the energy functional, we utilize a direct method to calculate the energy alterations instead of solving the Euler-Lagrange equation of the underlying problem. Compared with other fuzzy active contour models, experimental results on synthetic and real images show the advantages of the proposed method in terms of computational efficiency and accuracy. Jiangxiong Fang, Hesheng Liu, Huaxiang Liu, Liting Zhang, and Jun Liu Copyright © 2016 Jiangxiong Fang et al. All rights reserved.