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Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3548591, 16 pages
Research Article

Self-Organized Societies: On the Sakoda Model of Social Interactions

1Departamento de Ingeniería Industrial, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia
2CeiBA Complex Research Center, Bogotá, Colombia
3Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Avda. Diagonal las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile
4UAI Physics Center, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Santiago, Chile

Correspondence should be addressed to Sergio Rica

Received 3 October 2016; Revised 7 December 2016; Accepted 14 December 2016; Published 23 January 2017

Academic Editor: Mattia Frasca

Copyright © 2017 Pablo Medina et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We characterize the behavior and the social structures appearing from a model of general social interaction proposed by Sakoda. The model consists of two interacting populations in a two-dimensional periodic lattice with empty sites. It contemplates a set of simple rules that combine attitudes, ranges of interactions, and movement decisions. We analyze the evolution of the 45 different interaction rules via a Potts-like energy function which drives the system irreversibly to an equilibrium or a steady state. We discuss the robustness of the social structures, dynamical behaviors, and the existence of spatial long range order in terms of the social interactions and the equilibrium energy.