Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Complexity
Volume 2017, Article ID 4791635, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4791635
Research Article

Modeling and Simulation of Project Management through the PMBOK® Standard Using Complex Networks

1Department of Information and Computation, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Manizales 170003, Colombia
2Department of Mathematics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Manizales 170003, Colombia

Correspondence should be addressed to Gerard Olivar-Tost; oc.ude.lanu@travilog

Received 27 August 2017; Accepted 12 November 2017; Published 4 December 2017

Academic Editor: Dimitri Volchenkov

Copyright © 2017 Luz Stella Cardona-Meza and Gerard Olivar-Tost. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. J. Whitty and H. Maylor, “And then came complex project management (revised),” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 304–310, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. P. W. G. Morris, J. R. Pinto, and J. Söderlund, “The oxford handbook of project management,” 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Padalkar and S. Gopinath, “Are complexity and uncertainty distinct concepts in project management? a taxonomical examination from literatura,” International Journal of Project Management, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  4. R. Kolisch, “Serial and parallel resource-constrained project scheduling methods revisited: theory and computation,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 320–333, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. W. Herroelen, B. De Reyck, and E. Demeulemeester, “Resource-constrained project scheduling: a survey of recent developments,” Computers & Operations Research, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 279–302, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Kolisch and R. Padman, “An integrated survey of deterministic project scheduling,” Omega , vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 249–272, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Herroelen and R. Leus, “Robust and reactive project scheduling: a review and classification of procedures,” International Journal of Production Research, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 1599–1620, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Hartmann and D. Briskorn, “A survey of variants and extensions of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 207, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet · View at Scopus
  9. C. S. Lim and M. Z. Mohamed, “Criteria of project success: an explanatory re-examination,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, pp. 411–418, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Baccarini, “The Logical Framework Method for Defining Project Success,” Project Management Journal, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 25–32, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  11. T. J. Kloppenborg and W. A. Opfer, “The current state of project management research: trends, interpretations, and predictions,” Project Management Journal, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 5–18, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  12. A. S. Pillai, A. Joshi, and K. S. Rao, “Performance measurement of R&D projects in a multi-project, concurrent engineering environment,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 165–177.
  13. D. Tesch, T. J. Kloppenborg, and J. K. Stemmer, “Project management learning: what the literature has to say,” Project Management Journal, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 33–39, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  14. J. R. Turner and R. Müller, “The project manager’s leadership style as a success factor on projects: a literature review,” Project Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 49–61, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  15. K. Jugdev and R. Müller, “A retrospective look at our evolving understanding of project success,” Project Management Journal, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 19–31, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Rozenes, G. Vitner, and S. Spraggett, Project control: literature review, Project Management Institute, 2006.
  17. M. Huemann, A. Keegan, and J. R. Turner, “Human resource management in the project-oriented company: a review,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 315–323, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. P. Prabhakar, “What is project success: a literature review,” International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 3, no. 9, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. L. A. Ika, “Project success as a topic in project management journals,” Project Management Journal, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 6–19, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. C. Barclay and K.-M. Osei-Bryson, “Project performance development framework: an approach for developing performance criteria & measures for information systems (IS) projects,” International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 124, no. 1, pp. 272–292, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. Wi and M. Jung, “Modeling and analysis of project performance factors in an extended project-oriented virtual organization (EProVO),” Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 1143–1151, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Müller and K. Jugdev, “Critical success factors in projects: Pinto, Slevin, and Prescott – the elucidation of project success,” International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 757–775, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. de Wit, “Measurement of project success,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 164–170, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Cooke-Davies, “The ‘real’ success factors on projects,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 185–190, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Belout and C. Gauvreau, “Factors influencing project success: the impact of human resource management,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Aloini, R. Dulmin, and V. Mininno, “Risk management in ERP project introduction: review of the literature,” Information and Management, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 547–567, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Littau, N. J. Jujagiri, and G. Adlbrecht, “25 Years of stakeholder theory in project management literature (1984–2009),” Project Management Journal, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 17–29, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Padalkar and S. Gopinath, “Delays in projects: a game-theoretic study,” in Trends and Research in the Decision Sciences: Best Papers from the 2014 Annual Conference, M. Warkentin, Ed., pp. 191–212, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.
  29. F. E. Grubbs, “Letter to the Editor—Attempts to validate certain PERT statistics or ‘Picking on PERT’,” Operations Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 912–915, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. K. R. MacCrimmon and C. A. Ryavec, “An analytical study of the PERT assumptions,” Operations Research, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 16–37, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. R. J. Schonberger, “Why projects are ‘always’ late: a rationale based on manual simulation of a PERT/CPM network,” Interfaces, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 66–70, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. A. J. Shenhar and D. Dvir, Reinventing Project Management, Harvard Business School Press, 2007.
  33. J. M. Burt, “Planning and dynamic control of projects under uncertainty,” Management Science, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 249–258, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. M. Cook and R. H. Jennings, “Estimating a project’s completion time distribution using intelligent simulation methods,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1103–1108, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. T. M. Williams, “Criticality in stochastic networks,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 353–357, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. A. Bowman, “Efficient estimation of arc criticalities in stochastic activity networks,” Management Science, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 58–67, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. G. Cho and B. J. Yum, “An uncertainty importance measure of activities in PERT networks,” International Journal of Production Research, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2737–2758, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. S. E. Elmaghraby, Y. Fathi, and M. R. Taner, “On the sensitivity of project variability to activity mean duration,” International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 219–232, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. C. Chapman and S. Ward, “Estimation and evaluation of uncertainty: a minimalist first pass approach,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 369–383, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. T. Williams, C. Eden, F. Ackerman, and A. Tait, “Vicious circles of parallelism,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 151–155, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. A. G. Rodrigues and T. M. Williams, “System dynamics in project management: assessing the impacts of client behaviour on project performance,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, pp. 2–15, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  42. T. M. Williams, “The need for new paradigms for complex projects,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 269–273, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. Eden, T. Williams, F. Ackermann, and S. Howick, “The role of feedback dynamics in disruption and delay on the nature of disruption and delay (D and D) in major projects,” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 291–300, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Chanas and P. Zieliński, “Critical path analysis in the network with fuzzy activity times,” Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 195–204, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. T. R. Browning and S. D. Eppinger, “Modeling impacts of process architecture on cost and schedule risk in product development,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 428–442, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. S. van de Vonder, E. Demeulemeester, W. Herroelen, and R. Leus, “The use of buffers in project management: the trade-off between stability and makespan,” International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 227–240, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. C. Jensen, S. Johansson, and M. Löfström, “Project relationships-a model for analyzing interactional uncertainty,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 4–12, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  48. S.-P. Chen, “Analysis of critical paths in a project network with fuzzy activity times,” European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 442–459, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. J. Shenhar and D. Dvir, “Toward a typological theory of project management,” Research Policy, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 607–632, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. A. J. Shenhar, “One size does not fit all projects: exploring classical contingency domains,” Management Science, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 394–414, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Söderlund, “Building theories of project management: past research, questions for the future,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 183–191, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Cicmil, T. Williams, J. Thomas, and D. Hodgson, “Rethinking project management: researching the actuality of projects,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 675–686, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. H. J. Smyth and P. W. Morris, “An epistemological evaluation of research into projects and their management: methodological issues,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 423–436, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. P. W. G. Morris, “Research and the future of project management,” International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 139–146, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Jacobsson and A. Söderholm, “Breaking out of the straitjacket of project research: in search of contribution,” International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 378–388, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. S. Austin, A. Newton, J. Steele, and P. Waskett, “Modelling and managing project complexity,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 191–198, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. S. Howick and C. Eden, “The impact of disruption and delay when compressing large projects: going for incentives?” Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 26–34, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. W. Xia and G. Lee, “Grasping the complexity of is development projects,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 68–74, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. W. Xia and G. Lee, “Complexity of information systems development projects: conceptualization and measurement development,” Journal of Management Information Systems, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 45–83, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  60. S. H. Cho and S. D. Eppinger, “A simulation-based process model for managing complex design projects,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 316–328, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. M. Danilovic and T. R. Browning, “Managing complex product development projects with design structure matrices and domain mapping matrices,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 300–314, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. Baccarini, “The concept of project complexity—a review,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 201–204, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. T. Pich, C. H. Loch, and A. De Meyer, “On uncertainty, ambiguity, and complexity in project management,” Management Science, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1008–1023, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. C. Sommer and C. H. Loch, “Selectionism and learning in projects with complexity and unforeseeable uncertainty,” Management Science, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1334–1347, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Benbya and B. McKelvey, “Toward a complexity theory of information systems development,” Information Technology and People, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 12–34, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Cooke-Davies, S. Cicmil, L. Crawford, and K. Richardson, “Mapping the strange landscape of complexity theory, and its relationship to project management,” Project Management Journal, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 50–61, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. Geraldi and G. Adlbrecht, “On faith, fact, and interaction in projects,” Project Management Journal, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 32–43, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  68. H. Maylor, R. Vidgen, and S. Carver, “Managerial complexity in project based operations: a grounded model and its implications for practice,” Project Management Journal, vol. 39, no. S1, pp. S15–S26, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  69. L.-A. Vidal and F. Marle, “Understanding project complexity: implications on project management,” Kybernetes, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1094–1110, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. Girmscheid and Brockmann, “The inherent complexity of large scale engineering projects,” in The Annual Publication of International Project Management Association, vol. 29, pp. 22–26, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  71. T. Brady and A. Davies, “From hero to hubris? reconsidering the project management of Heathrows Terminal 5,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  72. S. Lenfle, “The strategy of parallel approaches in projects with unforeseeable uncertainty: the Manhattan case in retrospect,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 359–373, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. V. Ramasesh and T. R. Browning, “A conceptual framework for tackling knowable unknown unknowns in project management,” Journal of Operations Management, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 190–204, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. V. Tatikonda and S. R. Rosenthal, “Technology novelty, project complexity, and product development project execution success: a deeper look at task uncertainty in product innovation,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 74–87, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. R. Turner and R. Müller, “On the nature of the project as a temporary organization,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. Ward and C. Chapman, “Transforming project risk management into project uncertainty management,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 97–105, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. Atkinson, L. Crawford, and S. Ward, “Fundamental uncertainties in projects and the scope of project management,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 687–698, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. P. Anderson, “Complexity theory and organization science,” Organization Science, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 216–323, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. K. Remington and J. Pollack, “Tools for complex project,” 2010. View at Google Scholar
  80. D. Arellano, J. Danti, and M. F. Pérez, Proyectos y Sistemas, PMI-INCOSE, 2016, (Spanish).
  81. R. García, Sistemas Complejos, Editorial GEDISA, 2006 (Spanish), (Spanish).
  82. C. Ruiz-Martin and D. J. Poza, “Project configuration by means of network theory,” International Journal of Project Management, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 1755–1767, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. Holme and J. Saramaki, “Temporal networks,” Physics Reports, vol. 519, no. 3, pp. 97–125, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  84. S. Boccaletti, V. Latora, Y. Moreno, M. Chavez, and D. W. Hwang, “Complex networks: structure and dynamics,” Physics Reports, vol. 424, no. 4-5, pp. 175–308, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Boccaletti, G. Bianconi, R. Criado, C. I. del Genio et al., “The structure and dynamics of multilayer networks,” Physics Reports, vol. 544, no. 1, pp. 1–122, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  86. H. Sayama, Introduction to the Modeling and Analysis of Complex Systems, 2015.
  87. A. K, Network Analysis Literacy: A Practical Approach to The Analysis of Networks, Springer, 2016.