Table 4: Summary of discretization methods.

Binarization techniques Metaheuristic Problem References

Rounding offParticle swarmVoltage control[65]
Transport aircraft wing[64]
Task assignment[62]
Ant colonyDistribution system Reconfiguration[63]
FireflyInteger programming[66]

Random-key or small value positionMemeticShop scheduling[68]
Hybrid gravitational-annealingTraveling salesman[69]
Particle swarmPermutation flow-shop sequencing[70]
FireflyScheduling jobs on grid computing[71]
Cuckoo searchReliable embedded system reconfiguration[72]

Metaheuristic discretizationsTeaching-learningDistribution system[73]