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Research Article

Integrating “Hard” and “Soft” Infrastructural Resilience Assessment for Water Distribution Systems

Table 1

Performance criteria according to the TOSE approach (adapted from [19]).

Performance criteria
RobustnessRedundancyResourcefulnessRapidity

TECDamage avoidance and continued water supply provisionBackup or duplicate water supply systemsDiagnostic and damage detection technologies and methodologiesMinimize time to return to preevent infrastructural functional levels

ORGContinued ability to carry out designated function (i.e., water supply in emergency)Backup resources to sustain operation (i.e., alternative sites and water supplies)Plans and resources to cope with damage and disruptionMinimize time needed to restore services and perform key response tasks

SOCAvoidance of casualties and disruption in the community due to the interruption of water supplyAlternative means of providing water for community needsPlans and resources to meet community needsMinimize time to return to preevent functional levels

ECOAvoidance of direct and indirect economic lossesUntapped or excess economic capacity to provide water in case of loss of functionalityStabilizing measures (e.g., capacity enhancement and demand modification, external assistance, and optimizing recovery strategies)Minimize time to return to preevent functional levels

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