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Research Article

# A Multiscale Differential Evolution Algorithm-Based Maintenance Plan Optimization for Building Energy Retrofitting

## Algorithm 1

Pseudocode of MSDE.
 Definition: denotes the population size; denotes the quantity of subpopulations; denotes the subpopulation size; denotes the shuffling period; denotes the dimension of the explicit variable; denotes the dimension of the implicit variable; denotes the mutation factor; denotes the crossover rate; denotes the set of mutation factor and for each subpopulation. 1: BEGIN 2: ; 3: Initialize subpopulations (including explicit variables and implicit vectors); 4: Evaluate the fitness for each individual; 5: Set , ; 6: while the stopping criterion is not satisfied do 7:  while to do 8:    Randomly choose () from ; 9:    Find the local best ; 10:  while to do 11:    Randomly choose and from the k-th subpopulation, ; 12:    ; 13:    while to do 14:      if then 15:      ; 16:      else 17:      ; 18:      end if 19:    end while 20:    if then 21:     ; 22:    else 23:     ; 24:    end if 25:    if then 26:     ; 27:    else 28:     ; 29:    end if 30:  end while 31: end while 32: ; 33: if then 34:  Find the best subpopulation and worst one ; 35:  ; 36:  Mutate where ; 37:  Initialize subpopulations according to new ; 38: end if 39: end while 40: Find global best solution , ; 41: Return ; 42: END

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