Table 1: Cognitive and decision-making studies on unsafe behavior in construction teams.


PsychologicalEmotionPeople who are in a positive emotional state can better assess the consequences of their behavior than those who are in a negative emotional state [8].
AttentionThe unsafe behavior of construction workers is mainly due to the incorrect estimation of potential risks and a lack of attention [9].
Work pressureHofmann and Stetzer believe that complex and overloaded tasks can lead to work pressure and thus affect safety behavior [10].
The results of the study indicate that work stress is negatively correlated with safety behavior [11].

Cognition and assessmentSatisfactionThe results of the case study showed that the workers in the accident group were dissatisfied with the job compared with the workers in the nonaccident group (control group) [12].
AttitudeAttitude plays an important role in the behavior of the decision makers [13].
Workers perceive risk by collecting various kinds of information, and workers establish safety attitudes based on perceived risks. The workers decided to take action based on the established attitude [14].
MotivationMotivational factors (risk/benefit tradeoffs) play an important role in the process of violations, and cognitive factors may influence the results of violations. Errors may require the interpretation of individual cognitive processing capabilities [15].
Risk perceptionsRisk perception plays a crucial role in eliminating work-related hazards [16].

PhysiologicalFatigueWhen the miners feel tired, they will be negligent and more vulnerable to unsafe behavior [17].
AgeOccupational injury is related to the age-based curve, with injuries at first increasing with age, then decreasing. The two safety attitude scales were related to age, and the elderly are more positive about safety [18].
Young people under the age of 26 have low scores for safety performance, poor safety knowledge, and an aversion to safety management [19].

Individual attributesPersonalityStudying the relationship between the five dimensions of personality and work-related accidents also found a close correlation between personality traits and worker accident trends [20].
Risk preferenceWhen emphasizing decision-making options for avoiding losses, most people adopt risk-taking strategies [21].
KnowledgeThe degree of professional knowledge will directly affect the workers in dealing with professional projects [22].
Employees’ safety risk tolerance will be affected by work knowledge and work experience [13].
Work experienceWork experience affects the safety behavior of workers [23].
Construction workers generally lack objective and rational safety knowledge, and the judgment of the degree of danger is mainly based on personal intuitive experience and past experience [24].
Experienced workers clearly recognize that it is very important to incorporate disaster reduction measures into building technology from the beginning of the project [25].

Historical behaviorPast behaviorsGoles et al. believe that because of the positive emotional experience brought about by past behaviors, individuals will have a more positive attitude toward such behaviors, which in turn will increase their willingness to implement the behavior again [26].
Habitual behaviorsWhen experiencing problems, workers often choose a habit as a center of consciousness from experience. Bad habits can lead to injury accidents [27].
Customary unsafe behavior is the “burner” for unsafe production behaviors, and there are seven personal factors that affect habitual violations [28].