Table 2: Summary of subject interactions and environment on unsafe behavior in construction teams.

FactorsSubfactorsReferences

Hardware environmentConstruction equipmentEquipment maintenance has an important effect on the occurrence and severity of accidents [30].
WeatherHot weather conditions will increase the health and safety risks of construction workers and the possibility of workers suffering from heat-related diseases [31].
Work conditionThe characteristics of miners’ workplaces have a major impact on the occurrence of accidents [32].
Chi et al. studied the impact of unsafe working conditions on unsafe behavior of workers by analyzing the specific types of accidents and determining the degree of damage [33].
TechnologyAdeleke et al. showed that there is a significant positive correlation between technical factors and construction risk management [34].
In the industrial scene, using RFID technology to locate and monitor worker’s behaviors can help to predict and prevent risks [35].

InteractionImitationImitation and learning are the main methods for replicating and spreading unsafe behaviors. It can lead to or catalyze some new unsafe behaviors [24].
Workers tend to imitate others who appear to have adopted successful strategies [36].
Social conformityRozin shows how herd characteristics among group members can affect personal judgment and attitude [37].
Safety trainingSafety training plays a crucial role in risk prevention. It can help builders master the knowledge of construction technology [25].
Training is an indispensable part of a successful scientific and technological management system. In the design of a technical training program for a specific position, we should pay more attention to the characteristics of the staff and the awareness of risk [16].
Safety training has a positive effect on construction workers’ safe behavior [23].
Incentive mechanismsVredenburgh showed that incentive can effectively reduce the injury rate in industry [38].
Li et al. explained that the recognition of safety behavior through bonuses, penalties, awards, advancement, and so on is the most important factor in motivating us to work safely [39].
LeadershipManagers’ safety management decisions and attitudes have a significant impact on miners’ safety motivation and safety behavior [40].
Safety leadership measures help to improve safety performance [41].
Teamwork behaviorDov found that the group leader directly influences the employee’s operational behavior through daily task decisions [42].
The teamwork climate has a significant positive effect on workgroup members’ in-role, extra role, and deference behavior [43].
Workers’ safety behavior is influenced by the perceived teamwork climate [44].
Supervisory behaviorThe supervisory behavior affects the safe climate of the group and the safety behavior of the employees [45].
Khosravi et al. studied the influencing factors of unsafe behavior from the perspective of safety supervision and discussed the mechanism of management behavior on unsafe work behavior [46].

Soft environmentRegulationsSafety regulation has significant effects on safety performance [47].
Rules and regulations are conducive to construction risk management [34].
Safety management systemsAfter using the safety management system, the accident rate of the project dropped significantly [48].
Organizational structureThe characteristics of organizational structures in construction make the effects of social norms on safety more complex [49].
Work scheduleWork plans have a significant effect on the risk behavior of construction workers [50].
Safety standardsNational safety standards set out various mechanical safety measures and procedures to ensure safe work [51].
Safety climateThe safety climate has a significant direct effect on safety behavior [33].
The safety climate of the construction team is becoming more and more important in the process of construction safety management, because the casualty rate of the construction team is very high [52].
Safety cultureThe safety culture has an indirect effect on safety behavior [33].

Macro environmentPoliticalPolitical factors help construction companies to reduce risks in construction activities [34].
EconomicIsraelsson and Hansson affirmed a significant relationship between economic factors and construction risk management [53].
InsuranceInsurance companies can minimize losses, and contractors can be motivated to invest in safety [54].