Review Article

Emerging Risk Management in Industry 4.0: An Approach to Improve Organizational and Human Performance in the Complex Systems

Table 6

CSG’s overall description based on Keating and Bradley’s [18].

Areas of concernMetasystem functionPrimary role

System identityM5: Policy and identityFocusing on overall steering and trajectory for the Industry 4.0 systems in the fulfillment of their missions. Maintaining identity and balance between current and future focus.
M5: System contextFocusing on the specific context within which the metasystem of an industry is embedded. Context is the set of circumstances, factors, conditions, or patterns that enable or constrain execution of systems in Industry 4.0 setting.
M5’: Strategic system monitoringFocusing on oversight of the Industry 4.0 performance indicators at a strategic level. This includes identification of performances that exceed as well as those the fail to meet the established expectations.

System developmentM4: System developmentDeveloping and maintaining current and future models of systems in question within the Industry 4.0 schema as well as concentrating on the long-range development for the industry to enable the realization of future feasibilities.
M4: Learning and transformationFocusing on facilitation of learning based on correction of design errors (first order learning) in the metasystem roles of the industry as well as planning for revolution of the industry (second order learning).
M4’: Environmental scanningFocusing on designs, and monitoring systems that can be used to sense operating environment of the industry to detect environmental trends, patterns, or events that can have implications on the current and future state of the industry.

System operationsM3: System operations (M3)Focusing on the day to day execution of industry functions (operations)
M3: Operational performanceMonitoring system performance to identify and assess aberrant conditions, exceeded thresholds, and/or irregularities.

System informationM2: Information and communicationsCreating designs and mechanisms that enable the information flow and consistent interpretation of exchanges information and data necessary to execute industry functions.