Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2009, Article ID 867041, 7 pages
Research Article

The Decrease of n-3 Fatty Acid Energy Percentage in an Equicaloric Diet Fed to B6C3Fe Mice for Three Generations Elicits Obesity

1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine University of Illinois at Chicago, 1601 W. Taylor Street, Chicago, IL 60612, USA
2National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-9410, USA

Received 8 May 2009; Revised 16 June 2009; Accepted 30 June 2009

Academic Editor: Pietro Giusti

Copyright © 2009 Ingeborg Hanbauer et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Ailhaud, P. Guesnet, and S. C. Cunnane, “An emerging risk factor for obesity: does disequilibrium of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism contribute to excessive adipose tissue development?” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 461–470, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. P. Wang, E. Mariman, J. Renes, and J. Keijer, “The secretory function of adipocytes in the physiology of white adipose tissue,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 3–13, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. D. Attie and P. E. Scherer, “Adipocyte metabolism and obesity,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 50, supplement, pp. S395–S399, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  4. I. M. Faust, P. R. Johnson, J. S. Stern, and J. Hirsch, “Diet-induced adipocyte number increases in adult rats: a new model of obesity,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 235, pp. E279–E286, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  5. D. Hedeker and R. Gibbons, Longitudinal Data Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
  6. H. Tilg and A. R. Moschen, “Adipocytokines: mediators linking adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 772–783, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. S.-Y. Lim, J. D. Doherty, and N. Salem Jr., “Lead exposure and (n-3) fatty acid deficiency during rat neonatal development alter liver, plasma, and brain polyunsaturated fatty acid composition,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 1027–1033, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  8. A. D. Attie, R. M. Krauss, M. P. Gray-Keller et al., “Relationship between steaoryl CoA desaturase activity and plasma triglycerides in human and mouse hypertriglyceridemia,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 43, pp. 1899–1907, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  9. M. T. Flowers and J. M. Ntambi, “Role of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase in regulating lipid metabolism,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 248–256, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. T. Flowers and J. M. Ntambi, “Stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase and its relation to high-carbohydrate diets and obesity,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1791, pp. 85–91, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  11. L. C. Hudgins, M. Hellerstein, C. Seidman, R. Neese, J. Diakun, and J. Hirsch, “Human fatty acid synthesis is stimulated by a eucaloric low fat, high carbohydrate diet,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 9, pp. 2081–2091, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  12. W. C. Willett, “Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 3, pp. 59–68, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  13. H. Sampath and J. M. Ntambi, “Polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of genes of lipid metabolism,” Annual Review of Nutrition, vol. 25, pp. 317–340, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  14. W. Lands, “How is tissue fatty acid composition maintained?” Seminar to the Polyunsaturated Lipid Function Special Interest Group, December 2003, Google.
  15. C. L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, L. R. Curtin, M. A. McDowell, C. J. Tabak, and K. M. Flegal, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States,” American Medical Association, vol. 295, pp. 1549–1555, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. R. Hibbeln, L. R. G. Nieminen, T. L. Blasbalg, J. A. Riggs, and W. E. M. Lands, “Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: estimations considering worldwide diversity,” American Medical Association, vol. 83, pp. 2483S–1493S, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  17. C. Féart, E. Peuchant, L. Letenneur et al., “Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid is inversely associated with severity of depressive symptomatology in the elderly: data from the Bordeaux sample of the three-city study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 1156–1162, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. R. Hibbeln, “From homicide to happiness—a commentary on omega-3 fatty acids in human society,” in Nutrition and Health, vol. 19, pp. 9–19, 2007.
  19. M. E. Sublette, F. Bosetti, J. C. DeMar et al., “Plasma free polyunsaturated fatty acid levels are associated with symptom severity in acute mania,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 759–765, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. F. Calon, G. P. Lim, F. Yang et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid protects from dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model,” Neuron, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 633–645, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Folch, M. Lees, and G. H. Sloane-Stanley, “A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 226, pp. 497–509, 1957. View at Google Scholar
  22. W. R. Morrison and L. M. Smith, “Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and dimethylacetals from lipids with boron-fluoride-methanol,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 5, pp. 600–608, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  23. N. Salem Jr., M. Reyzer, and J. Karanian, “Losses of arachidonic acid in rat liver after alcohol inhalation,” Lipids, vol. 31, supplement, pp. S153–S156, 1996. View at Google Scholar