Table of Contents
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2010, Article ID 790431, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/790431
Review Article

Adipocytes as an Important Source of Serum S100B and Possible Roles of This Protein in Adipose Tissue

Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Ramiro Barcelos, 2600-Anexo, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

Received 1 April 2010; Accepted 17 May 2010

Academic Editor: Claus W. Heizmann

Copyright © 2010 Carlos Alberto Gonçalves et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Adipocytes contain high levels of S100B and in vitro assays indicate a modulated secretion of this protein by hormones that regulate lipolysis, such as glucagon, adrenaline, and insulin. A connection between lipolysis and S100B release has been proposed but definitive evidence is lacking. Although the biological significance of extracellular S100B from adipose tissue is still unclear, it is likely that this tissue might be an important source of serum S100B in situations related, or not, to brain damage. Current knowledge does not preclude the use of this protein in serum as a marker of brain injury or astroglial activation, but caution is recommended when discussing the significance of changes in serum levels where S100B may function as an adipokine, a neurotrophic cytokine, or an alarmin.