Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 367516, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/367516
Review Article

Cardiovascular Risk Factors Promote Brain Hypoperfusion Leading to Cognitive Decline and Dementia

Department of Psychology, University of TX at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA

Received 1 August 2012; Accepted 30 October 2012

Academic Editor: Christian Humpel

Copyright © 2012 Jack C. de la Torre. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Citations to this Article [119 citations]

The following is the list of published articles that have cited the current article.

  • Michael L. Alosco, Mary Beth Spitznagel, Ronald Cohen, Naftali Raz, Lawrence H. Sweet, Richard Josephson, Joel Hughes, Jim Rosneck, and John Gunstad, “Reduced cerebral perfusion predicts greater depressive symptoms and cognitive dysfunction at a 1-year follow-up in patients with heart failure,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 428–436, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julio C. Rojas, “Neurological and psychological applications of transcranial lasers and LEDs,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 447–457, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maria del Carmen Puertas, Jose Manuel Martinez-Martos, Manuela Cobo, Pedro Lorite, Rosa Maria Sandalio, Teresa Palomeque, Maria Isabel Torres, Maria Pilar Carrera-Gonzalez, Maria Dolores Mayas, and Maria Jesus Ramirez-Exposito, “Plasma renin-angiotensin system-regulating aminopeptidase activities are modified in early stage Alzheimer's disease and show gender differences but are not related to apolipoprotein E genotype,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 557–564, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Teun Aalbers, Lia Baars, and Marcel Olde Rikkert, “The Mediterranean diet as prevention strategy for dementia as a multicausal geriatric syndrome,” American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 97, no. 6, pp. 1411–1411, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lucy Nelson, Naji Tabet, Cassie Richardson, and Paul Gard, “Antihypertensives, angiotensin, glucose and Alzheimer's disease,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 477–482, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C. Lange-Asschenfeldt, “Vaskuläre Faktoren in der Pathogenese der Alzheimer-Krankheit,” Der Nervenarzt, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Justin B. Ng, Michele Turek, and Antoine M. Hakim, “Heart disease as a risk factor for dementia,” Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 135–145, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Angelo Bianchetti, Renzo Rozzini, and Marco Trabucchi, “Heart disease and psychogeriatric problems: A model of complexity,” Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia, vol. 14, no. 3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mark Greener, “Clarifying the link between Alzheimer's and vascular disease,” Progress in Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 27–28, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Surbhi Gupta, and Bhupesh Sharma, “Pharmacological modulation of I1-imidazoline and α2-adrenoceptors in sub acute brain ischemia induced vascular dementia,” European Journal of Pharmacology, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michael L. Alosco, Richard Hoge, Ronald A. Cohen, Lawrence H. Sweet, John Gunstad, Beth A. Jerskey, Xiaomeng Xu, Uraina S. Clark, Jason Hassenstab, Denise M. Cote, Edward G. Walsh, and Donald R. Labbe, “The adverse effects of reduced cerebral perfusion on cognition and brain structure in older adults with cardiovascular disease,” Brain and Behavior, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 626–636, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Diewertje I. Bink, Katja Ritz, Eleonora Aronica, Louise van der Weerd, and Mat J. A. P. Daemen, “Mouse models to study the effect of cardiovascular risk factors on brain structure and cognition,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1666–1684, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yuanlong Pan, “Cognitive dysfunction syndrome in dogs and cats,” CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, vol. 8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paulo W. Pires, Carla M. Dams Ramos, Nusrat Matin, and Anne M. Dorrance, “The effects of hypertension on the cerebral circulation,” American Journal Of Physiology-Heart And Circulatory Physiology, vol. 304, no. 12, pp. H1598–H1614, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sylvie Chokron, Gérard Helft, and Céline Perez, “Effects of Age and Cardiovascular Disease on Selective Attention,” Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 2013, pp. 1–7, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Chieh-Sen Chuang, Cheng-Li Lin, Ming-Chia Lin, and Fung-Chang Sung, “Migraine and Risk of Dementia; A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 41, no. 3-4, pp. 139–145, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julius B.M. Anang, Jean-Francois Gagnon, Josie-Anne Bertrand, Silvia Rios Romenets, Veronique Latreille, Michel Panisset, Jacques Montplaisir, and Ronald B. Postuma, “Predictors of dementia in Parkinson disease: A prospective cohort study,” Neurology, vol. 83, no. 14, pp. 1253–1260, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Didac Vidal-Piñeiro, Cinta Valls-Pedret, Sara Fernández-Cabello, Eider M. Arenaza-Urquijo, Roser Sala-Llonch, Elisabeth Solana, Núria Bargalló, Carme Junqué, Emilio Ros, and David Bartrés-Faz, “Decreased Default Mode Network connectivity correlates with age-associated structural and cognitive changes,” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, vol. 6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • P. Cermakova, M. Eriksdotter, L. H. Lund, B. Winblad, P. Religa, and D. Religa, “Heart failure and Alzheimer′s disease,” Journal of Internal Medicine, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • S. Viola, P. Viola, M. P. Buongarzone, L. Fiorelli, F. Mattucci, and P. Litterio, “New brain reperfusion rehabilitation therapy improves cognitive impairment in mild Alzheimer's disease: a prospective, controlled, open-label 12-month,” Aging Clinical And Experimental Research, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 417–425, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Julie Hugo, and Mary Ganguli, “Dementia and Cognitive Impairment,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 421–442, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Shuzo Kobayashi, Yasuhiro Mochida, Kunihiro Ishioka, Machiko Oka, Kyouko Maesato, Hidekazu Moriya, Sumi Hidaka, and Takayasu Ohtake, “The effects of blood pressure and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive impairment in dialysis patients,” Hypertension Research, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 636–641, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sylvia Villeneuve, Bruce R. Reed, Cindee M. Madison, Stephen Kriger, Charles DeCarli, Michael W. Weiner, William J. Jagust, Wendy J. Mack, Nerses Sanossian, Helena C. Chui, Miranka Wirth, and Natalie L. Marchant, “Vascular risk and Ab interact to reduce cortical thickness in AD vulnerable brain regions,” Neurology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 40–47, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Katherine J. Bangen, Daniel A. Nation, Lindsay R. Clark, Alexandrea L. Harmell, Christina E. Wierenga, Sheena I. Dev, Lisa Delano-Wood, Zvinka Z. Zlatar, David P. Salmon, Thomas T. Liu, and Mark W. Bondi, “Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow,” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, vol. 6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sebastian Heinzel, Inga Liepelt-Scarfone, Benjamin Roeben, Isabella Nasi-Kordhishti, Ulrike Suenkel, Isabel Wurster, Kathrin Brockmann, Andreas Fritsche, Raphael Niebler, Florian G. Metzger, Gerhard W. Eschweiler, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Walter Maetzler, and Daniela Berg, “A Neurodegenerative Vascular Burden Index and the Impact on Cognition,” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, vol. 6, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, and David J Werring, “Advances in understanding spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: insights from neuroimaging,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 661–678, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Eugenio Picano, Rosa Maria Bruno, Gian Franco Ferrari, and Ubaldo Bonuccelli, “Cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease: So near, so far,” International Journal of Cardiology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simona Lattanzi, Simona Luzzi, Leandro Provinciali, and Mauro Silvestrini, “Blood pressure variability predicts cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients,” Neurobiology of Aging, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wanhong Zhao, Chao Luo, Jue Wang, Jian Gong, Bin Li, Yingxia Gong, and Jun Wang, “3-N-butylphthalide improves neuronal morphology after chronic cerebral ischemia,” Neural Regeneration Research, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 719–726, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xueping Chen, Xiaoyan Guo, Rui Huang, Yongping Chen, Zhenzhen Zheng, and Huifang Shang, “Serum Uric Acid Levels in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis,” Plos One, vol. 9, no. 4, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Stephanie H. Charles, Amanda C. Tow, and Joe Verghese, “Objective cardiac markers and cerebrovascular lesions in Indian seniors,” Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Emilene Dias Fiuza Ferreira, Cássia Valério Romanini, Janaina Nicolau de Oliveira, Isolde Terezinha Santos Previdelli, Silvana Regina de Melo, Rúbia Maria Weffort de Oliveira, and Humberto Milani, “Fish oil provides a sustained antiamnesic effect after acute, transient forebrain ischemia but not after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in middle-aged rats,” Behavioural Brain Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Stella-Maria Paddick, Aloyce Kisoli, Maria Samuel, Janice Higginson, William K. Gray, Catherine L. Dotchin, Anna R. Longdon, Andrew Teodorczuk, Paul Chaote, and Richard W. Walker, “Mild Cognitive Impairment in Rural Tanzania: Prevalence, Profile, and Outcomes at 4-Year Follow-up,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Renee F. A. G. de Bruijn, and M. Arfan Ikram, “Cardiovascular risk factors and future risk of Alzheimer's disease,” Bmc Medicine, vol. 12, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • James Ampadu, and John E. Morley, “Heart Failure and Cognitive Dysfunction,” International Journal of Cardiology, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Emaddin Kidher, Leanne Harling, Colin Sugden, Hutan Ashrafian, Roberto Casula, Paul Evans, Petros Nihoyannopoulos, and Thanos Athanasiou, “Aortic stiffness is an indicator of cognitive dysfunction before and after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis,” Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 595–604, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mary Ganguli, Bo Fu, Beth E. Snitz, Frederick W. Unverzagt, David A. Loewenstein, Tiffany F. Hughes, and Chung-Chou H. Chang, “Vascular risk factors and cognitive decline in a population sample,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • R Otsuka, C Tange, Y Nishita, Y Kato, T Imai, F Ando, and H Shimokata, “Serum docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid and risk of cognitive decline over 10 years among elderly Japanese,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • I. Suridjan, P.M. Rusjan, A.N. Voineskos, T. Selvanathan, E. Setiawan, A.P. Strafella, A.A. Wilson, J.H. Meyer, S. Houle, and R. Mizrahi, “Neuroinflammation in healthy aging: A PET study using a novel Translocator Protein 18kDa (TSPO) radioligand, [18F]-FEPPA,” NeuroImage, vol. 84, pp. 868–875, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • C.J. Aine, L. Sanfratello, J.C. Adair, J.E. Knoefel, C. Qualls, S.L. Lundy, A. Caprihan, D. Stone, and J.M. Stephen, “Characterization of a normal control group: Are they healthy?,” NeuroImage, vol. 84, pp. 796–809, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simona Lattanzi, Giovanna Viticchi, Lorenzo Falsetti, Laura Buratti, Simona Luzzi, Leandro Provinciali, and Mauro Silvestrini, “Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Alzheimer Disease,” Alzheimer Disease & Associated Disorders, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 347–351, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hultman, Cortes-Canteli, Bounoutas, Richards, Strickland, and Norris, “Plasmin deficiency leads to fibrin accumulation and a compromised inflammatory response in the mouse brain,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 701–712, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rebecca A. Gary, and Kathryn Brunn, “Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure,” Cardiology Research and Practice, vol. 2014, pp. 1–8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Paolo Gisondi, Francesca Sala, Franco Alessandrini, Virginia Avesani, Giada Zoccatelli, Alberto Beltramello, Giuseppe Moretto, Giuseppe Gambina, and Giampiero Girolomoni, “Mild Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Moderate to Severe Chronic Plaque Psoriasis,” Dermatology, vol. 228, no. 1, pp. 78–85, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Surbhi Gupta, Bhupesh Sharma, Prabhat Singh, and Brij Mohan Sharma, “Modulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (trpv1) and norepinephrine transporters (net) protect against oxidative stress, cellular injury, and vascular dementia,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 94–106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Laura Buratti, Giovanna Viticchi, Lorenzo Falsetti, Claudia Cagnetti, Simona Luzzi, Marco Bartolini, Leandro Provinciali, and Mauro Silvestrini, “Vascular Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease: The Role of Obstructive Sleep Apnea,” Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 445–453, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xinghua Liu, Zhihong Wang, Yiyuan Xia, Guang Yu, Kuan Zeng, Hongbin Luo, Jichang Hu, Cheng-Xin Gong, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xin-Wen Zhou, and Xiao-Chuan Wang, “Losartan-Induced Hypotension Leads to Tau Hyperphosphorylation and Memory Deficit,” Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 419–427, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Giovanna Viticchi, Lorenzo Falsetti, Fabrizio Vernieri, Claudia Altamura, Riccardo Altavilla, Simona Luzzi, Marco Bartolini, Leandro Provinciali, and Mauro Silvestrini, “Apolipoprotein E genotype and cerebrovascular alterations can influence conversion to dementia in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 401–410, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simon D'Alton, Sally Hunter, Peter Whitehouse, Carol Brayne, and Daniel George, “Adapting to Dementia in Society: A Challenge for Our Lifetimes and a Charge for Public Health,” Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1151–1163, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Xiang-Fei Meng, Jin-Tai Yu, Hui-Fu Wang, Meng-Shan Tan, Chong Wang, Chen-Chen Tan, and Lan Tan, “Midlife Vascular Risk Factors and the Risk of Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1295–1310, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Allison Auchter, Justin Williams, Bryan Barksdale, Marie H. Monfils, and Francisco Gonzalez-Lima, “Therapeutic Benefits of Methylene Blue on Cognitive Impairment during Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion,” Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 42, pp. S525–S535, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jack C. de la Torre, “In-House Heart-Brain Clinics to Reduce Alzheimer's Disease Incidence,” Journal of Alzheimers Disease, vol. 42, pp. S431–S442, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ponrathi Athilingam, Constance Visovsky, Amanda F. Elliott, and Philip J. Rogal, “Cognitive Screening in Persons With Chronic Diseases in Primary Care: Challenges and Recommendations for Practice,” American Journal Of Alzheimers Disease And Other Dementias, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 547–558, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sebastian Heinzel, Florian G. Metzger, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Robert Korell, Ahmed Alboji, Florian B. Haeussinger, Isabel Wurster, Kathrin Brockmann, Ulrike Suenkel, Gerhard W. Eschweiler, Walter Maetzler, Daniela Berg, and Andreas J. Fallgatter, “Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency,” Plos One, vol. 10, no. 9, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lin Wu, Xiao-Tao Feng, Yue-Qiang Hu, Nong Tang, Qing-Shan Zhao, Tian-Wei Li, Hai-Yuan Li, Qing-Bi Wang, Xin-Ya Bi, and Xin-Kun Cai, “Global Gene Expression Profile of the Hippocampus in a Rat Model of Vascular Dementia,” Tohoku Journal Of Experimental Medicine, vol. 237, no. 1, pp. 57–67, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zareen Amtul, “Controversies looming over Alzheimer's research: Do we have consensus over the path to follow?,” Ageing Research Reviews, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lucy Nelson, and Naji Tabet, “Slowing the progression of Alzheimer's Disease; what works?,” Ageing Research Reviews, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hazel I Zonneveld, Elizabeth A Loehrer, Albert Hofman, Wiro J Niessen, Aad van der Lugt, Gabriel P Krestin, M Arfan Ikram, and Meike W Vernooij, “The bidirectional association between reduced cerebral blood flow and brain atrophy in the general population,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anna Kruyer, Nadine Soplop, Sidney Strickland, and Erin H. Norris, “Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease,” Hypertension, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 175–182, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Soren D. Ostergaard, Shubhabrata Mukherjee, Stephen J. Sharp, Petroula Proitsi, Luca A. Lotta, Felix Day, John R. B. Perry, Kevin L. Boehme, Stefan Walter, John S. Kauwe, Laura E. Gibbons, Eric B. Larson, John F. Powell, Claudia Langenberg, Paul K. Crane, Nicholas J. Wareham, and Robert A. Scott, “Associations between Potentially Modifiable Risk Factors and Alzheimer Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study,” Plos Medicine, vol. 12, no. 6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jill N. Barnes, “Exercise, cognitive function, and aging,” Advances In Physiology Education, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 55–62, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Geetha Bhat, Gardner Yost, and Edward Mahoney, “Cognitve Function and Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation,” The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • J.-C. Ma, M.-J. Duan, L.-L. Sun, M.-L. Yan, T. Liu, Q. Wang, C.-D. Liu, X. Wang, X.-H. Kang, S.-C. Pei, D.-K. Zong, X. Chen, N. Wang, and J. Ai, “Cardiac Over-Expression of Microrna-1 Induces Impairment of Cognition in Mice,” Neuroscience, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Catarina Rendeiro, Ashley M. Masnik, Jonathan G. Mun, Kristy Du, Diana Clark, Ryan N. Dilger, Anna C. Dilger, and Justin S. Rhodes, “Fructose decreases physical activity and increases body fat without affecting hippocampal neurogenesis and learning relative to an isocaloric glucose diet,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, pp. 9589, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Evan P. Pasha, Sonya S. Kaur, Mitzi M. Gonzales, Daniel R. Machin, Kennon Kasischke, Hirofumi Tanaka, and Andreana P. Haley, “Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults,” Journal Of Clinical Hypertension, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 306–312, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Corey N. White, Laura E. VanderDrift, and Kevin S. Heffernan, “Social Isolation, Cognitive Decline, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk,” Current Opinion in Psychology, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Michael L. Alosco, John Gunstad, Courtney Beard, Xiaomeng Xu, Uraina S. Clark, Donald R. Labbe, Beth A. Jerskey, Maura Ladino, Denise M. Cote, Edward G. Walsh, Athena Poppas, Ronald A. Cohen, and Lawrence H. Sweet, “The Synergistic Effects of Anxiety and Cerebral Hypoperfusion on Cognitive Dysfunction in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease,” Journal Of Geriatric Psychiatry And Neurology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 57–66, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • William Grant, Sunil Wimalawansa, Michael Holick, John Cannell, Pawel Pludowski, Joan Lappe, Mary Pittaway, and Philip May, “Emphasizing the Health Benefits of Vitamin D for Those with Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Intellectual Disabilities,” Nutrients, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1538–1564, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Renee F. A. G. de Bruijn, Jan Heeringa, Frank J. Wolters, Oscar H. Franco, Bruno H. C. Stricker, Albert Hofman, Peter J. Koudstaal, and M. Arfan Ikram, “Association Between Atrial Fibrillation and Dementia in the General Population,” Jama Neurology, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 1288–1294, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Matthew P. Pase, Alexa Beiser, Hugo Aparicio, Charles DeCarli, Vasan Ramachandran, Joanne Murabito, and Sudha Seshadri, “Interarm differences in systolic blood pressure and the risk of dementia and subclinical brain injury,” Alzheimer's & Dementia, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Lingzhong Meng, Wugang Hou, Jason Chui, Ruquan Han, and Adrian W. Gelb, “Cardiac Output and Cerebral Blood Flow,” Anesthesiology, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 1198–1208, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Javier Díez, and Luis M. Ruilope, “Serelaxin for the treatment of acute heart failure: a review with a focus on end-organ protection,” European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, pp. pvv046, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Diana Cifuentes, Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon, Bernard I. Lévy, Marine Poittevin, Ekrem Dere, Dong Broquères-You, Philippe Bonnin, Joëlle Benessiano, Marc Pocard, Jean Mariani, and Nathalie Kubis, “Hypertension accelerates the progression of Alzheimer-like pathology in a mouse model of the disease,” Hypertension, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 218–224, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Dawn S. Hui, John E. Morley, Peter C. Mikolajczak, and Richard Lee, “Atrial Fibrillation: A Major Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline,” American Heart Journal, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Behnam Sabayan, Mark A. van Buchem, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Qian Zhang, Tamara B. Harris, Vilmundur Gudnason, Andrew E. Arai, and Lenore J. Launer, “Cardiac Hemodynamics are Linked With Structural and Functional Features of Brain Aging: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Stud,” Journal Of The American Heart Association, vol. 4, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Alberto R. Ramos, Wassim Tarraf, Tatjana Rundek, Susan Redline, William K. Wohlgemuth, Jose S. Loredo, Ralph L. Sacco, David J. Lee, Raanan Arens, Patricia Lazalde, James P. Choca, Thomas Mosley, and Hector M. Gonzalez, “Obstructive sleep apnea and neurocognitive function in a Hispanic/Latino population,” Neurology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 391–398, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simona Lattanzi, Simona Luzzi, Leandro Provinciali, and Mauro Silvestrini, “Blood Pressure Variability in Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia: The Effect on the Rate of Cognitive Decline,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 387–394, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhiyou Cai, Chuanling Wang, Wenbo He, Hanjun Tu, Zhengang Tang, Ming Xiao, and Liang-Jun Yan, “Cerebral small vessel disease and Alzheimer's disease,” Clinical Interventions In Aging, vol. 10, pp. 1695–1704, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Fedor Jagla, and Olga Pechanova, “Age-Related Cognitive Impairment as a Sign of Geriatric Neurocardiovascular Interactions: May Polyphenols Play a Protective Role?,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2015, pp. 1–8, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Erika Rimondi, Amedeo Zurlo, Paola Secchiero, Veronica Tisato, Gloria Brombo, Stefano Volpato, Giorgio Zauli, and Giovanni Zuliani, “Serum soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand levels in older subjects with dementia and mild cognitive impairment,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 41, no. 5-6, pp. 273–280, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anja Meissner, “Hypertension and the brain: A risk factor for more than heart disease,” Cerebrovascular Diseases, vol. 42, no. 3-4, pp. 255–262, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Noboru Toda, and Tomio Okamura, “Cigarette smoking impairs nitric oxide-mediated cerebral blood flow increase: Implications for Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Pharmacological Sciences, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kannayiram Alagiakrishnan, Darren Mah, Ali Ahmed, and Justin Ezekowitz, “Cognitive decline in heart failure,” Heart Failure Reviews, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yejin Mok, Heechoul Ohrr, Jee-Jeon Yi, Sang-Wook Yi, Young Duk Yun, Jihwan Park, and Sun Ha Jee, “Low systolic blood pressure and vascular mortality among more than 1 Million Korean adults,” Circulation, vol. 133, no. 24, pp. 2381–2390, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jean-Sébastien Vidal, Olivier Hanon, Benoît Funalot, Nadège Brunel, Cécile Viollet, Anne-Sophie Rigaud, Marie-Laure Seux, Yves le-Bouc, Jacques Epelbaum, and Emmanuelle Duron, “Low Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Predicts Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer’s Disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 641–649, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Tianshu Zhang, Wei Wang, Jin Huang, Xia Liu, Haiyan Zhang, and Naixia Zhang, “Metabolomic investigation of regional brain tissue dysfunctions induced by global cerebral ischemia,” Bmc Neuroscience, vol. 17, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Huifeng Yang, Weihua Niu, Xiaoying Zang, Mei Lin, and Yue Zhao, “The association between atrial fibrillation and cognitive function in patients with heart failure,” European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, pp. 147451511664129, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Simon Paul Conroy, Jennifer K. Harrison, Veronika Van Der Wardt, Rowan Harwood, Pip Logan, Tomas Welsh, and John R. F. Gladman, “Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in older people with dementia: a systematic review of tolerability,” Age and Ageing, pp. afw050, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kye-Yeung Park, Hwan-Sik Hwang, Yeon-Pyo Kim, and Hoon-Ki Park, “Risk factors for cognitive decline associated with gait speed in community-dwelling elderly Koreans with MMSE scores of 30,” Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 183–189, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Evan P. Pasha, Alex Birdsill, Paige Parker, Ahmed Elmenshawy, Hirofumi Tanaka, and Andreana P. Haley, “Visceral adiposity predicts subclinical white matter hyperintensities in middle-aged adults,” Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Yong Li, Xiao-Shi Zhang, and Jin-Long Yu, “Acanthoic acid inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory response by activating LXRα in human umbilical vein endothelial cells,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 32, pp. 111–115, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Emine Colgecen, Asuman Celikbilek, and Dudu Taslak Keskin, “Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ju-Chi Liu, Yi-Ping Hsu, Pai-Feng Kao, Wen-Rui Hao, Shing-Hwa Liu, Chao-Feng Lin, Li-Chin Sung, and Szu-Yuan Wu, “Influenza Vaccination Reduces Dementia Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients,” Medicine, vol. 95, no. 9, pp. e2868, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Natalie Kappus, Niels Bergsland, Michael G. Dwyer, Channa Kolb, David Hojnacki, Murali Ramanathan, Robert Zivadinov, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Jesper Hagemeier, Cheryl Kennedy, Rebecca Melia, Ellen Carl, Deepa P. Ramasamy, Mariya Cherneva, and Jacqueline Durfee, “Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with increased lesion burden and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 181–187, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bhupesh Sharma, and Prabhat Singh, “Reversal in cognition impairments, cholinergic dysfunction, and cerebral oxidative stress through the modulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and cysteinyl leukotriene-1 (CysLT1) Receptors,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 10–21, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Juan Ramiro Diaz, Jessica A. Filosa, Ki Jung Kim, and Jennifer A. Iddings, “Vasculo-neuronal coupling: Retrograde vascular communication to brain neurons,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 36, no. 50, pp. 12624–12639, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Hazel I. Zonneveld, M. Arfan Ikram, Albert Hofman, Wiro J. Niessen, Aad van der Lugt, Gabriel P. Krestin, Oscar H. Franco, and Meike W. Vernooij, “N-Terminal Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Subclinical Brain Damage in the General Population,” Radiology, pp. 160548, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Veronika Dostálová, Kamil Sedláček, Jan Bělohlávek, Radovan Turek, Martin Pretl, and Ondrej Bezdicek, “Psychosocial sequelae following cardiac arrest,” Cor et Vasa, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Donald M. Lyall, Carlos A. Celis-Morales, Jana Anderson, Jason M. R. Gill, Daniel F. Mackay, Andrew M. McIntosh, Daniel J. Smith, Ian J. Deary, Naveed Sattar, and Jill P. Pell, “Associations between single and multiple cardiometabolic diseases and cognitive abilities in 474 129 UK Biobank participants,” European Heart Journal, pp. ehw528, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Sunil S. Adav, and Siu Kwan Sze, “Insight of brain degenerative protein modifications in the pathology of neurodegeneration and dementia by proteomic profiling,” Molecular Brain, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Charles Agyemang, Irene E. van de Vorst, Huiberdina L. Koek, Michiel L. Bots, Azizi Sexas, Marie Norredam, Umar Ikram, Karien Stronks, and Ilonca Vaartjes, “Ethnic Variations in Prognosis of Patients with Dementia: A Prospective Nationwide Registry Linkage Study in The Netherlands,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp. 1–9, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Isabelle F. van der Velpen, Stephanie Feleus, Anne Suzanne Bertens, and Behnam Sabayan, “Hemodynamic and serum cardiac markers and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia,” Alzheimer's & Dementia, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Frank J. Wolters, Renée F.A.G. De Bruijn, Albert Hofman, Peter J. Koudstaal, and Arfan Ikram, “Cerebral Vasoreactivity, Apolipoprotein E, and the Risk of Dementia: A Population-Based Study,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 204–210, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Siobhan M Hoscheidt, J Mikhail Kellawan, Sara E Berman, Leonardo A Rivera-Rivera, Rachel A Krause, Jennifer M Oh, Michal S Beeri, Howard A Rowley, Oliver Wieben, Cynthia M Carlsson, Sanjay Asthana, Sterling C Johnson, William G Schrage, and Barbara B Bendlin, “Insulin resistance is associated with lower arterial blood flow and reduced cortical perfusion in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged adults,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, pp. 0271678X1666321, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Prabhat Singh, and Bhupesh Sharma, “Reversal in Cognition Impairments, Cholinergic Dysfunction, and Cerebral Oxidative Stress Through the Modulation of Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) and Cys,” Current Neurovascular Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 4–15, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Gwo-Chi Hu, and Yi-Min Chen, “Post-stroke Dementia: Epidemiology, Mechanisms and Management,” International Journal of Gerontology, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Zhilin Xiong, Weibiao Lu, Lihui Zhu, Ling Zeng, Changzheng Shi, Zhen Jing, Yonghui Xiang, Wenxian Li, Chi Kwan Tsang, Yiwen Ruan, and Li’an Huang, “Dl-3-n-Butylphthalide Treatment Enhances Hemodynamics and Ameliorates Memory Deficits in Rats with Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion,” Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, vol. 9, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Karthik Dhananjayan, Dhanushka Gunawardena, Nerissa Hearn, Tanja Sonntag, Chris Moran, Erika Gyengesi, Velandai Srikanth, and Gerald Münch, “Activation of Macrophages and Microglia by Interferon–γ and Lipopolysaccharide Increases Methylglyoxal Production: A New Mechanism in the Development of Vascular Complications and Cognitive Decline in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp. 1–13, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Wang-Sheng Jin, Xian-Le Bu, Ye-Ran Wang, Ling Li, Wei-Wei Li, Yu-Hui Liu, Chi Zhu, Xiu-Qing Yao, Yang Chen, Chang-Yue Gao, Tao Zhang, Chang-Yue Gao, Hua-Dong Zhou, Fan Zeng, and Yan-Jiang Wang, “Reduced Cardiovascular Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp. 1–7, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jodi D. Edwards, “The Importance of Identifying Early Changes in Cardiac Structure and Function for the Prevention of Cognitive Impairment and Dementia,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, pp. 1–4, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Christina L. Nemeth, Zachary N. Stowe, Gretchen N. Neigh, Sean D. Kelly, Emily E. Hardy, Chase Bourke, and Michael J. Owens, “Prenatal stress-induced increases in hippocampal von Willebrand factor expression are prevented by concurrent prenatal escitalopram,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 172, pp. 24–30, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Mak Adam Daulatzai, “Cerebral hypoperfusion and glucose hypometabolism: Key pathophysiological modulators promote neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neuroscience Research, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 943–972, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Maire E. Percy, and Walter J. Lukiw, “Is heart disease a risk factor for low dementia test battery scores in older persons with Down syndrome? Exploratory, pilot study, and commentary,” International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, pp. 1–14, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Bülent Bağcı, Tijen Utkan, Yusufhan Yazir, Feyza Aricioglu, Gökçe Sevim Öztürk, and Yusuf Sarioglu, “Effects of agmatine on cognitive functions during vascular dementia in biological aging through eNOS and BDNF expression,” Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, pp. 1–10, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Ibrahim R. Bou-Orm, Assem M. Khamis, and Monique Chaaya, “Determinants of poor cognitive function using A-IQCODE among Lebanese older adults: a cross-sectional study,” Aging & Mental Health, pp. 1–5, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Anja Meissner, Guadalupe Soria, Anna M Planas, and Jens Minnerup, “Structural and functional brain alterations in a murine model of Angiotensin II-induced hypertension,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 509–521, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Kevin G. Graves, Heidi T. May, Victoria Jacobs, Tami L. Bair, Scott M. Stevens, Scott C. Woller, Brian G. Crandall, Michael J. Cutler, John D. Day, Charles Mallender, Jeffrey S. Osborn, J. Peter Weiss, and T. Jared Bunch, “Atrial Fibrillation Incrementally Increases Dementia Risk Across All CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc strata in Patients Receiving Long-Term Warfarin,” American Heart Journal, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Rachel Gardner, Joseph D. Tingling, Shameena Bake, Rajesh C. Miranda, and Farida Sohrabji, “Fetal Alcohol Exposure Alters Blood Flow and Neurological Responses to Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Adult Mice,” Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 117–127, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  • Jack C. de la Torre, “Cardiac dysfunction and cognitive decline,” European Heart Journal, pp. ehw614, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar