Case Reports in Critical Care / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Case Report

A 32-Year-Old Female with AIDS, Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia, and Methemoglobinemia

Table 1

Causes of methemoglobinemia.

Congenital
Abnormal hemoglobin
 Hemoglobin MBoston
 Hemoglobin MHyde Park
 Hemoglobin MIwate
 Hemoglobin MMilwaukee
 Hemoglobin MRatnagiri
 Hemoglobin Ms
 Hemoglobin MSaskatoon
Enzyme deficiency
 Cytochrome b5/NADH reductase deficiencies (Types I–IV)
 G6PD deficiency
 NADPH-flavin reductase deficiency
Acquired
Anti-infectives
 Chloroquine
 Dapsone
 Nitrofurans
 Primaquine
 Rifampin
 Sulfanilamide (topical)
 Sulfonamides
 Sulfoxone
Chemicals
 Acetanilide
 Alloxan
 Aniline derivatives
 Aromatic amines
 Arsine
 Bivalent copper
 Chlorates
 Chromates
 Dimethyl sulfoxide
 Dimethyltoluidine
 Ferricyanide
 Hydroxylamine
 Naphthalene
 Phenacetin
 Toluidine
 Phenols
Drugs
 Acetaminophen (metabolites)
 Clofazimine
 Flutamide
 Methylene blue (high dose)
 Isosulfan blue
 Metoclopramide
 Nitric oxide
 Nitrous oxide
 Paraquat
 Phenazopyridine
 Phenytoin
 Rasburicase
 Resorcinol
 Sodium valproate
 Sulfasalazine
Environmental/occupational
 Automobile exhaust fumes
 Inks
 Nitrites
 Paints
 Propellants
 Room deodorizer
 Varnishes
Foods
 Menthol
 Fava beans
 Vegetables (spinach, beets, and carrots)
 Well water
Local anesthetics
 Benzocaine
 Bupivacaine
 Lidocaine
 Prilocaine
 Tetracaine (lozenges)
Nitrates
 Alkyl nitrate
 Amyl nitrate
 Bismuth subnitrate
 Butyl nitrate
 Dinitrophenol
 Isobutyl nitrate
 Nitrobenzene
 Nitroglycerin
 Nitrophenol
 Nitroprusside
 Silver nitrate
 Trinitrotoluene

Adapted from [714].

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