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Case Reports in Dentistry
Volume 2015, Article ID 152717, 12 pages
Case Report

Primary Chronic Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Children: An Update on Pathophysiology, Radiological Findings, Treatment Strategies, and Prospective Analysis of Two Cases

1Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Linköping University Hospital, 581 85 Linköping, Sweden
2Department of Radiology, Mälarsjukhuset Eskilstuna Hospital, Sweden

Received 1 July 2015; Accepted 20 August 2015

Academic Editor: Luis Junquera

Copyright © 2015 Caroline Berglund et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaws in children is associated with pain, trismus, and swelling. In children, temporomandibular joint involvement is rare and few studies have been published due to the relatively low incidence. This paper presents two cases of mandibular PCO in children with the involvement of the collum mandibulae. In addition, a review of the literature regarding demographic data, histological, radiological, and laboratory findings, and treatment strategies of PCO was also performed. Material and Methods. Prospective analyses of two PCO cases. A PubMed search was used and the articles were sorted according to their corresponding key area of focus. Results. Review of the literature revealed twenty-four cases of PCO with two cases of mandibular condyle involvement. The mean age was 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1 : 3. Most of the patients were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with decortication. Clinical recurrence was seen in 7 cases. Conclusion. A combination of anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical intervention appears to be the first choice of treatment. However, surgical removal of necrotic tissue adjacent to collum mandibulae has its limitations in children. Further investigations are of utmost importance in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of this disease.