Case Reports in Emergency Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Acute Paraplegia as a Presentation of Aortic Saddle Embolism Sun, 16 Oct 2016 15:45:16 +0000 Background. Acute onset paraplegia has a myriad of causes most often of a nonvascular origin. Vascular etiologies are infrequent causes and most often associated with postsurgical complications. Objective. To describe the occurrence and possible mechanism for aortic saddle embolism as a rare cause of acute paraplegia. Case Report. Described is a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with the sudden onset of nontraumatic low back pain with rapidly progressive paraplegia which was subsequently determined to be of vascular origin. Lisandro Irizarry, Anton Wray, and Kim Guishard Copyright © 2016 Lisandro Irizarry et al. All rights reserved. Tibiofibula Transposition in High-Energy Fractures Tue, 11 Oct 2016 06:32:00 +0000 We report two cases of failed attempts at closed reduction of high-energy tibial fractures with an associated fibula fracture. The first case was a 39-year-old male involved in high-speed motorbike collision, while the second was a 14-year-old male who injured his leg following a fall of three metres. Emergency medical services at the scenes of the accidents reported a 90-degree valgus deformity of the injured limb and both limbs were realigned on scene and stabilized. Adequate alignment of the tibia could not be achieved by manipulation under sedation or anaesthesia. Open reduction and exposure of the fracture sites revealed that the distal fibula fragment was “transposed” and entrapped in the medulla of the proximal tibial fragment. Reduction required simulation of the mechanism of injury in order to disengage the fragments and allow reduction. Tibiofibula transposition is a rare complication of high-energy lower limb fractures which has not previously been reported and may prevent adequate closed reduction. Impaction of the distal fibula within the tibial medulla occurs as the limb is realigned by paramedic staff before transfer to hospital. We recommend that when this complication is identified the patient is transferred to the operating room for open reduction and stabilization of the fracture. Peter R. Loughenbury, Rebecca A. Gledhill, and Nick Evans Copyright © 2016 Peter R. Loughenbury et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Heterogeneity of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in the Emergency Department: Impact on Clinical Outcome Tue, 27 Sep 2016 08:37:51 +0000 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is mainly classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). Although diagnosis of GBS requires progressive weakness and universal areflexia or hyporeflexia, cases of GBS with preserved or increased deep tendon reflexes (DTRs) have been increasingly recognized. We report three cases of GBS, presenting at a single unit in six months. Our first case presented with pure sensory symptoms. The second case had nonspecific generalized weakness, while the third presented with typical ascending weakness. One of our patients had preserved DTRs, while the other two had increased DTRs. Our two cases with hyperreflexia were found to have a preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection and anti-ganglioside antibodies, and their electrophysiological studies revealed AMAN. The other case had an AIDP. Only one case was offered a diagnosis and treatment from the first emergency department (ED) visit and had a better clinical outcome. Clinical diagnosis of GBS in the ED can be challenging. Delay in diagnosis of GBS in the ED is common due to cases with intact or increased DTRs, atypical pattern of weakness, or pure sensory symptoms. Emergency physicians should be aware of GBS clinical heterogeneity, because early diagnosis and treatment improve clinical outcome. Athanasios Papathanasiou and Ioannis Markakis Copyright © 2016 Athanasios Papathanasiou and Ioannis Markakis. All rights reserved. Conservative Treatment of Carpometacarpal Dislocation of the Three Last Fingers Wed, 14 Sep 2016 14:02:12 +0000 Posterior carpometacarpal (CMC) dislocation is a rare condition. Treatment is usually surgical though no strict consensus can be found upon literature review. If diagnosed early and no associated fractures are found, CMC dislocation could benefit from conservative treatment comprising closed reduction and splint immobilisation. We report the case of a 26-year-old man diagnosed with a posterior dislocation of the third, fourth, and fifth CMC joints after a fall of 1.5 meters, treated by external reduction under procedural sedation and immobilisation with a cast for 6 weeks. Evolution was excellent with no relapse observed during follow-up. Our aim is to increase physician awareness of CMC dislocation so that they seek this injury in the emergency department. Unrecognised CMC dislocation can lead to neurovascular injuries as well as chronic instability and early articular degeneration. Hélène Jumeau, Philippe Lechien, and Florence Dupriez Copyright © 2016 Hélène Jumeau et al. All rights reserved. A Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy Presenting with a Negative Urine Pregnancy Test Wed, 07 Sep 2016 10:08:51 +0000 A negative urine pregnancy test in the emergency department traditionally excludes the diagnosis of pregnancy. We report a rare case of ruptured ectopic pregnancy in a patient with a negative urine pregnancy test but with a serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) of 10 mIU/mL. The patient developed hemoperitoneum and required laparoscopy by Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/Gyn). This case highlights the fallibility of the urine pregnancy test in diagnosing early pregnancy. Johnathan Michael Sheele, Rachel Bernstein, and Francis L. Counselman Copyright © 2016 Johnathan Michael Sheele et al. All rights reserved. Spider Bite: A Rare Case of Acute Necrotic Arachnidism with Rapid and Fatal Evolution Mon, 29 Aug 2016 13:11:28 +0000 The spider bites are quite frequent and often resolve quickly without leaving outcomes; only some species are capable of causing necrotic and systematic lesions in humans. Among them, we should mention the genus Loxosceles. The venom released from the spider bite of Loxosceles species is composed of proteins, enzymes, and nonenzymatic polypeptides. The phospholipase D family was identified as the active component of the venom. This family of enzymes is responsible for the local and systemic effects observed in loxoscelism. Phospholipases D interact with cell membranes triggering alterations which involve the complement system and activation of neutrophils and they cause the dermonecrotic skin lesions and systemic effects. We describe a fatal case of acute intoxication caused by a spider bite probably belonging to the species Loxosceles. The initial lesion was localized to a finger of a hand. Clinical course was worsening with deep necrotic lesions on limb, shock, hemolysis, acute kidney failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. All therapies were ineffective. This is the first fatal case described in Europe. Mario Pezzi, Anna Maria Giglio, Annamaria Scozzafava, Orazio Filippelli, Giuseppe Serafino, and Mario Verre Copyright © 2016 Mario Pezzi et al. All rights reserved. Pulmonary Embolism Presenting as Abdominal Pain: An Atypical Presentation of a Common Diagnosis Wed, 24 Aug 2016 17:58:10 +0000 Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent diagnosis made in the emergency department and can present in many different ways. Abdominal pain is an unusual presenting symptom for PE. It is essential to maintain a high degree of suspicion in these patients, as a delay in diagnosis can be devastating for the patient and confers a high risk of mortality if left untreated. Here, we report the case of a 53-year-old male who presented to the emergency department with worsening right upper quadrant abdominal pain with fevers. Initial imaging was benign, although lab work showed worsening leukocytosis and bilirubin. Abdominal pathology seemed most likely, but the team kept PE on the differential. Further imaging revealed acute pulmonary embolus in the segmental branch of the right lower lobe extending distally into subsegmental branches. The patient was started on anticoagulation and improved drastically. This case highlights the necessity of keeping a broad differential and maintaining a systematic approach when dealing with nonspecific complaints. Furthermore, a discussion on the pathophysiology on why PE can present atypically as abdominal pain, as well as fevers, is reviewed. Using this information can hopefully lead to a subtle diagnosis of PE in the future and lead to a life-saving diagnosis. Hasan Rehman, Elizabeth John, and Payal Parikh Copyright © 2016 Hasan Rehman et al. All rights reserved. Lyme Disease Presenting with Multiple Cranial Nerve Deficits: Report of a Case Sun, 21 Aug 2016 14:05:18 +0000 Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted multisystem inflammatory disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. With more than 25,000 CDC reported cases annually, it has become the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. We report a case of 38-year-old man with Lyme disease presenting with simultaneous palsy of 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves. Abhishek Chaturvedi, Keith Baker, Donald Jeanmonod, and Rebecca Jeanmonod Copyright © 2016 Abhishek Chaturvedi et al. All rights reserved. Necrotizing Fasciitis Presenting as an Itchy Thigh Thu, 04 Aug 2016 13:27:45 +0000 We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis diagnosed in the emergency department. The clinical presentation and diagnostic findings of necrotizing fasciitis are discussed. Thor Shiva Stead and V. Shushrutha Hedna Copyright © 2016 Thor Shiva Stead and V. Shushrutha Hedna. All rights reserved. Severe Methemoglobinemia due to Sodium Nitrite Poisoning Wed, 03 Aug 2016 08:14:24 +0000 Case. We report a case of severe methemoglobinemia due to sodium nitrite poisoning. A 28-year-old man was brought to our emergency department because of transient loss of consciousness and cyanosis. He was immediately intubated and ventilated with 100% oxygen. A blood test revealed a methemoglobin level of 92.5%. Outcome. We treated the patient with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and methylene blue (2 mg/kg) administered intravenously. Soon after receiving methylene blue, his cyanosis resolved and the methemoglobin level began to decrease. After relocation to the intensive care unit, his consciousness improved and he could recall ingesting approximately 15 g sodium nitrite about 1 hour before he was brought to our hospital. The patient was discharged on day 7 without neurologic impairment. Conclusion. Severe methemoglobinemia may be fatal. Therefore, accurate diagnosis of methemoglobinemia is very important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. Kenichi Katabami, Mineji Hayakawa, and Satoshi Gando Copyright © 2016 Kenichi Katabami et al. All rights reserved. Ultrasound-Guided Forearm Nerve Blocks: A Novel Application for Pain Control in Adult Patients with Digit Injuries Sun, 31 Jul 2016 06:39:20 +0000 Phalanx fractures and interphalangeal joint dislocations commonly present to the emergency department. Although these orthopedic injuries are not complex, the four-point digital block used for anesthesia during the reduction can be painful. Additionally, cases requiring prolonged manipulation or consultation for adequate reduction may require repeat blockade. This case series reports four patients presenting after mechanical injuries resulting in phalanx fracture or interphalangeal joint dislocations. These patients received an ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve block of the forearm with successful subsequent reduction. To our knowledge, use of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocks of the forearm for anesthesia in reduction of upper extremity digit injuries in adult patients in the emergency department setting has not been described before. Richard Amini, Parisa Patricia Javedani, Albert Amini, and Srikar Adhikari Copyright © 2016 Richard Amini et al. All rights reserved. Posttraumatic Haematuria with Pseudorenal Failure: A Diagnostic Lead for Intraperitoneal Bladder Rupture Thu, 28 Jul 2016 10:57:58 +0000 Bladder rupture is a very morbid injury following blunt or penetrating lower abdominal trauma. Prompt diagnosis is crucial to initiate optimal treatment. Intraperitoneal bladder rupture is associated with haematuria and biochemical features of renal failure. Cystogram is diagnostic. Immediate open surgical repair is the main stay of treatment. A case of intraperitoneal rupture diagnosed preoperatively by the presence of haematuria and pseudorenal failure is presented to highlight the association of posttraumatic haematuria and pseudorenal failure in such injuries. Ketan Vagholkar and Suvarna Vagholkar Copyright © 2016 Ketan Vagholkar and Suvarna Vagholkar. All rights reserved. Reversal of Dabigatran Using Idarucizumab in a Septic Patient with Impaired Kidney Function in Real-Life Practice Wed, 27 Jul 2016 12:01:47 +0000 Background. Immediate reversal of anticoagulation is essential when facing severe bleeding or emergency surgery. Although idarucizumab is approved for the reversal of dabigatran in many countries, clinical experiences are lacking, particularly in special patient-populations such as sepsis and impaired renal function. Case Presentation. We present the case of a 67-year-old male septic patient with a multilocular facial abscess and chronic kidney disease (GFR 36.5 mL/min). Thrombin time (TT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) 15 hours after the last intake of 150 mg dabigatran were both prolonged (>120 sec, resp., 61 sec), as well as unbound dabigatran concentration (119.05 ng/mL). Before immediate emergency surgery dabigatran was antagonised using idarucizumab 2 × 2.5 g. Dabigatran concentration was not detectable 10 min after idarucizumab administration (<30 ng/mL). TT and aPTT time were normalised (16.2 sec, resp., 30.2 sec). Sepsis was controlled after surgery and kidney function remained stable. In the absence of postoperative bleeding, dabigatran was restarted 36 hours after admission. Conclusion. Idarucizumab successfully reversed the effect of dabigatran in real-life practice in a patient with sepsis and renal impairment and allowed emergency surgery with normal haemostasis. Efficacy and safety in real-life practice will nevertheless require prospective registries monitoring. Thomas C. Sauter, Sina Blum, Michael Nagler, Fabian L. Schlittler, Meret E. Ricklin, and Aristomenis K. Exadaktylos Copyright © 2016 Thomas C. Sauter et al. All rights reserved. Propofol Infusion Syndrome in Refractory Status Epilepticus: A Case Report and Topical Review Thu, 14 Jul 2016 11:39:47 +0000 Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is a fatal complication when doses of propofol administration exceed 4 mg/kg/h for more than 48 hours. Propofol overdosage is not uncommon in patients with refractory status epilepticus (RSE). We describe a case of refractory status epilepticus complicated by propofol infusion syndrome and collect from 5 databases all reports of refractory status epilepticus cases that were treated by propofol and developed the syndrome and outline whether refractory status epilepticus treatment with propofol is standardized according to international recommendations, compare it with alternative medications, and discuss how this syndrome can be treated and prevented. A total of 21 patients who developed this syndrome reported arrhythmia in all cases (100%), rhabdomyolysis in 9 cases (42%), lactic acidosis in 13 cases (62%), renal failure in 8 cases (38%), lipemia in 7 cases (33%), and elevated hepatic enzymes in 6 cases (28%). 13 patients died (66%). Propofol is still given in a dosage higher than what is internationally recommended, and new treatment modalities such as renal replacement therapy, blood exchange, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation seem to be promising. In conclusion, propofol should be carefully titrated, the maximal infusion rate needs to be reassessed, and combination of different sedative agents may be considered. Akil Walli, Troels Dirch Poulsen, Mette Dam, and Jens Børglum Copyright © 2016 Akil Walli et al. All rights reserved. Iatrogenic Radial Nerve Palsy following Closed Reduction of a Simple Diaphyseal Humeral Fracture: Beware the Perfect X-Ray Tue, 12 Jul 2016 12:12:20 +0000 Radial nerve injury is a recognised complication associated with humeral shaft fracture. A case of iatrogenic radial nerve injury is presented following fracture reduction. The relevant anatomy, challenges in management of humeral fractures with associated radial nerve injury, and the importance of detailed clinical assessment and documentation are discussed. Morgan Jones, Hean Wu Kang, Christopher O’Neill, and Paul Maginn Copyright © 2016 Morgan Jones et al. All rights reserved. Hemoptysis as the Presenting Clinical Sign of a T8-T9 Spine Fracture with Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis Changes Wed, 22 Jun 2016 09:19:22 +0000 Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a noninflammatory degenerative disease that affects multiple spine levels and, in combination with osteoporosis, makes vertebrae more prone to fractures, especially in elderly people. We describe a rare case of thoracic fracture in an ankylosed spine in which hemoptysis was the only clinical sign. The patient (age in the early 80s) presented with chest pain and a cough associated with hemoptysis. The patient had no complaints of back pain and no neurological symptoms. Computed tomography (CT) angiography of the chest revealed changes consistent with DISH, with fractures at the T8 and T9 vertebra as well as lung hemorrhage or contusion in the right lung base. CT and magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed similar findings, with a recent T8-T9 fracture and DISH changes. The patient underwent percutaneous pedicle screw fixation from T7 to T11 and remained neurologically intact with an uneventful postoperative course. Ioannis Siasios, John Pollina, and Vassilios G. Dimopoulos Copyright © 2016 Ioannis Siasios et al. All rights reserved. Avoidable Compartment Syndrome! High Index of Suspicion for a Newly Presenting Haemophiliac: A Case Series Tue, 31 May 2016 11:39:42 +0000 Bleeding disorders can present at any age and vary in their severity. Haemophilia, which is characterised by its x-linked recessive inheritance, can present with a spontaneous mutation and therefore no family history will be evident. Three cases of trauma induced thigh haematomas as an initial presenting feature for people with haemophilia are discussed. The cases highlight the importance of a coagulation screen if the patients bleeding phenotype does not match the injury sustained. An isolated prolonged APTT with no offending anticoagulant cause should always be investigated to look for underlying haemophilia. Interestingly the cases demonstrate the limitations of a coagulation screen. Factor VIII being an acute phase reactant can result in the fact that the initial coagulation screen may be temporarily normal. Therefore, if there is a high index of suspicion for a bleeding disorder, consider repeating the coagulation screen and seeking haematology opinion. Early diagnosis and appropriate specific factor replacement for an injured haemophiliac prevent haematomas expanding thus avoiding potential complications like compartment syndrome or unnecessary surgical input. A. Niblock, K. Donnelly, F. Sayers, P. Winter, and G. Benson Copyright © 2016 A. Niblock et al. All rights reserved. Severe Cardiomyopathy after Huffing Dust-Off™ Wed, 25 May 2016 09:46:32 +0000 A 34-year-old man was found down in a parking lot after huffing fifteen cans of Dust-Off. Though lucid during the initial hospital evaluation, the patient experienced a generalized seizure followed by a torsades de pointes arrhythmia and was resuscitated. An echocardiogram revealed left and right ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction of 25%. This unique outcome of inhalant abuse has scarcely been reported in similar cases. The patient fully recovered and had a normal ejection fraction prior to discharge. Alexis L. Cates and Matthew D. Cook Copyright © 2016 Alexis L. Cates and Matthew D. Cook. All rights reserved. Intramedullary Abscess by Staphylococcus aureus Presenting as Cauda Equina Syndrome to the Emergency Department Mon, 16 May 2016 11:32:01 +0000 Cauda equina syndrome (CES) is a rare entity presenting with low back pain, unilateral or bilateral sciatica, motor weakness of lower extremities, sensory disturbance in the perineal area, and urinary and/or faecal incontinence. Those symptoms are secondary to compression of the cauda equina. If not recognized, CES can lead to irreversible disabilities. We report the case of a 77-year-old lady who presented to the emergency department with a ten-day history of back pain as well as urinary incontinence. Dimitrios Damaskos, Helene Jumeau, François-Xavier Lens, and Philippe Lechien Copyright © 2016 Dimitrios Damaskos et al. All rights reserved. Compartment Syndrome of the Hand: A Little Thought about Diagnosis Thu, 12 May 2016 13:14:20 +0000 Compartment syndrome of the forearm is a well described entity but there have been relatively few case reports in the emergency medicine literature of hand compartment syndromes (HCS). Prompt recognition and treatment of this potential limb threat are essential to minimize morbidity and mortality. Presented is a case of a documented hand compartment syndrome following a motor vehicle collision. Eric F. Reichman Copyright © 2016 Eric F. Reichman. All rights reserved. Pancreatic Pseudocyst Pleural Fistula in Gallstone Pancreatitis Thu, 05 May 2016 08:08:48 +0000 Extra-abdominal complications of pancreatitis such as pancreaticopleural fistulae are rare. A pancreaticopleural fistula occurs when inflammation of the pancreas and pancreatic ductal disruption lead to leakage of secretions through a fistulous tract into the thorax. The underlying aetiology in the majority of cases is alcohol-induced chronic pancreatitis. The diagnosis is often delayed given that the majority of patients present with pulmonary symptoms and frequently have large, persistent pleural effusions. The diagnosis is confirmed through imaging and the detection of significantly elevated amylase levels in the pleural exudate. Treatment options include somatostatin analogues, thoracocentesis, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with pancreatic duct stenting, and surgery. The authors present a case of pancreatic pseudocyst pleural fistula in a woman with gallstone pancreatitis presenting with recurrent pneumonias and bilateral pleural effusions. Sala Abdalla, Ioannis Nikolopoulos, and Rajab Kerwat Copyright © 2016 Sala Abdalla et al. All rights reserved. Pneumothorax Caused by an Isolated Midshaft Clavicle Fracture Mon, 11 Apr 2016 08:46:42 +0000 Patients with isolated clavicle fractures are frequent in the emergency department. However, unusual clavicle fractures complications, such as pneumothorax, are rare. Previous reports indicated that all pneumothorax cases were treated via performing thoracostomy. Conservatively, the treatment of the clavicle fracture, like in our case, was successful. Despite the fact that isolated clavicle fractures rarely cause complications and generally heal with immobilization, serious complications may occur requiring urgent treatment. It has been proven that physical examinations, with particular attention to the neurovascular and chest examinations, and radiographs of the clavicle are necessary to prevent overlooking these potentially dangerous complications. Najla Feriani, Hassen Ben Ghezala, and Salah Snouda Copyright © 2016 Najla Feriani et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Plasma-Derived Complement C1-Esterase Inhibitor Concentrate (Berinert®) in the Treatment of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-Inhibitor Related Angioedema Thu, 31 Mar 2016 10:11:37 +0000 Angioedema of the upper airways is a severe and potentially life-threatening condition. The incidence has been increasing in the past two decades, primarily due to pharmaceuticals influencing the generation or degradation of the vasoactive molecule bradykinin. Plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor concentrate is a well-established treatment option of hereditary and acquired complement C1-esterase inhibitor deficiency, which are also mediated by an increased level of bradykinin resulting in recurrent angioedema. We here present a case of severe angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor related angioedema (ACEi-AE) of the hypopharynx that completely resolved rapidly after the infusion of plasma-derived C1-inhibitor concentrate adding to the sparse reports in the existing literature. Thorbjørn Hermanrud, Nicolaj Duus, Anette Bygum, and Eva Rye Rasmussen Copyright © 2016 Thorbjørn Hermanrud et al. All rights reserved. Pneumomediastinum following Crystal Use: A Report of Two Cases Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:33:11 +0000 Crystal is a synthetic substance with an increasing rate of abuse. It may cause patients to present to the emergency department because of its acute complications. We depict two cases of pneumomediastinum following inhalation of crystal. Both cases had used crystal for recreational purposes. In one case, a young man presenting to the ED with the retrosternal chest pain and neck pain was diagnosed to have pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium. The other patient presenting with dyspnea and chest pain was shown to have collection of air within mediastinum. Both patients underwent a series of diagnostic evaluations and, after a course of observation, were discharged without a surgical intervention. Patients with chest pain following inhalation of crystal may suffer from this complication. Samiramis Pourmotabed and Mohammad Jalili Copyright © 2016 Samiramis Pourmotabed and Mohammad Jalili. All rights reserved. The Second Look after Fights: Why Wounds Might Not Only Be Superficial Thu, 17 Mar 2016 16:50:33 +0000 Introduction. We present a case of intraosseous foreign body penetration due to knife attack and its emergency service management. Case. Seventeen-year-old patient was admitted to the emergency department with a knife cut over the right knee. In the local wound exploration during the extension position of the knee, deep tissue penetration was not observed. Therefore, the patient was discharged after a primary wound saturation without any radiographic evaluation. During the second admission, the detailed anamnesis revealed that the injury occurred while the knee was in the flexion and the radiographic examination displayed a broken knifepoint in the sagittal plane of the femur’s medial patellar region penetrated in the intraosseous tissue. Conclusion. Intraosseous foreign body cases due to the knife attacks are quite rare. There is no algorithm, indicating the necessity of radiographic examination in the stab wounds. Local wound exploration of stab wounds should be done in accordance with the mechanism of injury. Egemen Küçük, Alauddin Kochai, Ümit Fikret Onur, Yasemin Yıldız Kirazaldı, and Ali Murat Başak Copyright © 2016 Egemen Küçük et al. All rights reserved. Right Hydronephrosis as a Complication of Acute Appendicitis Wed, 16 Mar 2016 09:55:08 +0000 Introduction. Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdomen, but atypical appendicitis may lead to delayed diagnosis and related complications. In this report, we present a very rare case of acute appendicitis causing right hydronephrosis. Case Report. A 54-year-old male patient who had been receiving antibiotic therapy due to the diagnosis of urinary tract infection for the last one week but had no clinical improvement was admitted to the emergency service. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed right hydronephrosis and a pelvic abscess. After appendectomy and abscess drainage had been performed, hydronephrosis was completely recovered. Discussion. The use of appendicitis scoring systems, abdominal ultrasonography (USG), abdominal CT, and diagnostic laparoscopy can be useful for the diagnostic process in patients presenting with acute abdomen. In our patient, we considered that the surgical treatment was delayed since the symptoms of acute appendicitis were suppressed by the antibiotic therapy that was being administered due to the complaints including symptoms of urinary tract infections. Conclusion. Atypical appendicitis may cause a delay in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and thus may lead to serious complications such as right hydronephrosis, prolonged hospital stay, increased morbidity and mortality, and increased antibiotic resistance. Selahattin Koray Okur, Yavuz Savaş Koca, İhsan Yıldız, and İbrahim Barut Copyright © 2016 Selahattin Koray Okur et al. All rights reserved. A Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (Clarkson Syndrome) in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report in an Out-of-Hospital Setting Wed, 16 Mar 2016 07:46:24 +0000 Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disease with poor prognosis, characterized by the occurrence of mucocutaneous and visceral edema with hypotension, hemoconcentration, and unexpected hypoalbuminemia. The disease can be idiopathic (Clarkson syndrome) or secondary to other diseases and treatments. We describe this syndrome in a prehospitalized, 63-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and an idiopathic form of SCLS manifesting as hypovolemic shock. Initial care is hospitalization in intensive care. In addition to etiological treatment if fluid replacement is necessary, treatment must be closely monitored for secondary overload complications. Catecholamine rather than arrhythmogenic support may be associated. Manon Durand Bechu, Antoine Rouget, Christian Recher, Elie Azoulay, and Vincent Bounes Copyright © 2016 Manon Durand Bechu et al. All rights reserved. Removal of a Tungsten Carbide Ring from the Finger of a Pregnant Patient: A Case Report Involving 2 Emergency Departments and the Internet Sun, 06 Mar 2016 14:19:25 +0000 Introduction. Destructive or nondestructive procedures may be used to remove rings from injured fingers. Because of their hardness, tungsten carbide rings present special problems. Case Presentation. The patient was a 33-year-old woman, two weeks before delivery, with a swollen and reddened ring finger. It was decided to remove a tungsten carbide ring from her ring finger. This was achieved by shattering the ring with locking pliers. The patient’s ring finger recovered fully. Alexandre Moser, Aristomenis Exadaktylos, and Alexander Radke Copyright © 2016 Alexandre Moser et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Arachnoid Cyst Rupture with Subdural Hygroma in a Child Thu, 18 Feb 2016 11:19:31 +0000 Arachnoid cyst of the brain is common in children but its association with spontaneous subdural hygroma is rare. A case of a nine-year-old boy, without any preceding history of trauma, is presented here who came to the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital with complaints of headache, nausea, and vomiting for the last two weeks but more for the last two days. Examination showed a young, fully conscious oriented boy with positive Cushing’s reflex and papilledema of left eye. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the brain showed left temporal extra-axial cystic lesion of 5.40 × 4.10 cm in size, representing arachnoid cyst, with bilateral frontoparietal subdural hygromas. Cyst was partially drained through left temporal craniectomy and subdural hygromas were drained through bilateral frontal burr holes. Postoperatively the child recovered uneventfully and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. Histopathology proves it to be arachnoid cyst of the brain with subdural CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) collection or hygroma. Muhammad Faisal Khilji, Niranjan Lal Jeswani, Rana Shoaib Hamid, and Faisal Al Azri Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Faisal Khilji et al. All rights reserved. Atraumatic Subdural Hematoma in a Third-Trimester Gravid Patient Wed, 17 Feb 2016 13:58:27 +0000 Acute atraumatic subdural hematoma is a rare occurrence and there exist few case studies which describe suspected cases and causes for this condition. We present a case of a 36-year-old female at 32-week gestation who initially presented to the emergency department for evaluation of lower extremity cellulitis but had acute neurologic change while being in the ED. Computed tomography revealed a right subdural hematoma with midline shift and mass effect. The primary cause for the patient’s subdural hematoma is unknown; however, this patient had several risk factors for developing an atraumatic subdural hematoma. D. C. Traficante, A. Marin, and A. Catapano Copyright © 2016 D. C. Traficante et al. All rights reserved.