Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 6831854, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6831854
Case Report

Protein Loosing Enteropathy Secondary to Strongyloidiasis: Case Report and Review of the Literature

1Department of Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology Division, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Hadath Campus, P.O. Box 3, Hadath, Beirut 2903 1308, Lebanon
2Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Lebanese University, Hadath Campus, P.O. Box 3, Hadath, Beirut 2903 1308, Lebanon

Received 16 November 2015; Accepted 9 December 2015

Academic Editor: Tetsuo Hirata

Copyright © 2016 Weam El Hajj et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Olsen, L. van Lieshout, H. Marti et al., “Strongyloidiasis—the most neglected of the neglected tropical diseases?” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 103, no. 10, pp. 967–972, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. F. M. Paula and J. M. Costa-Cruz, “Epidemiological aspects of strongyloidiasis in Brazil,” Parasitology, vol. 138, no. 11, pp. 1331–1340, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. B. Rokni, W. M. Lotfy, P. J. Hotez, and N. R. de Silva, “Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in the MENA region,” in Neglected Tropical Diseases—Middle East and North Africa, M. A. McDowell and S. Rafati, Eds., Neglected Tropical Diseases, chapter 1, pp. 1–21, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. F. Schär, U. Trostdorf, F. Giardina et al., “Strongyloides stercoralis: global distribution and risk factors,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 7, Article ID e2288, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. G. F. Araj, U. M. Musharraheh, A. Haydar, A. Ghawi, R. Itani, and R. Saliba, “Trends and prevalence of intestinal parasites at a tertiary care center in Lebanon over a decade,” Journal Medical Libanais, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 143–148, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. R. Saab, U. Musharrafieh, N. T. Nassar, M. Khogali, and G. F. Araj, “Intestinal parasites among presumably healthy individuals in Lebanon,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. N. Suvajdžić, I. Kranjčić-Zec, V. Jovanović, D. Popović, and M. Čolović, “Fatal strongyloidosis following corticosteroid therapy in a patient with chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia,” Haematologia, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 323–326, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. B. Keise and T. B. Nutman, “Strongyloides stercoralis in the immunocompromised population,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 208–217, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  9. P. L. Ho, W. K. Luk, A. C. L. Chan, and K. Y. Yuen, “Two cases of fatal strongyloidiasis in Hong Kong,” Pathology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 324–326, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Ahmed, S. Rashid, N. Ammannagari, and W. Cheungpasitporn, “Chasing Eosinophilia in Loeffler's syndrome: a case of strongyloidiasis in upstate New York,” North American Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 5, no. 3, article 248, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. M. Newberry, D. N. Williams, W. M. Stauffer, D. R. Boulware, B. R. Hendel-Paterson, and P. F. Walker, “Strongyloides hyperinfection presenting as acute respiratory failure and gram-negative sepsis,” Chest, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 3681–3684, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. Román-Sánchez, A. Pastor-Guzmán, S. Moreno-Guillén, R. Igual-Adell, S. Suñer-Generoso, and C. Tornero-Estébanez, “High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis among farm workers on the Mediterranean coast of Spain: analysis of the predictive factors of infection in developed countries,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 336–340, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Sudarshi, R. Stümpfle, M. Armstrong et al., “Clinical presentation and diagnostic sensitivity of laboratory tests for Strongyloides stercoralis in travellers compared with immigrants in a non-endemic country,” Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 728–732, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. S. Lam, M. K. H. Tong, K. M. Chan, and Y. P. Siu, “Disseminated strongyloidiasis: a retrospective study of clinical course and outcome,” European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 14–18, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. Buonfrate, A. Requena-Mendez, A. Angheben et al., “Severe strongyloidiasis: a systematic review of case reports,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, article 78, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. A. Siddiqui and S. L. Berk, “Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 33, no. 7, pp. 1040–1047, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. B. Nielsen and M. Mojon, “Improved diagnosis of strongyloides stercoralis by seven consecutive stool specimens,” Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie Mikrobiologie und Hygiene A, vol. 263, no. 4, pp. 616–618, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. C. Polanco, L. A. Gutiérrez, and J. C. Arias, “Diagnosis of strongyloides stercoralis infection: meta-analysis on evaluation of conventional parasitological methods (1980–2013),” Revista Española de Salud Pública, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 581–600, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. M. Carroll, K. T. Karthigasu, and D. I. Grove, “Serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 706–709, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. J. Krolewiecki, R. Ramanathan, V. Fink et al., “Improved diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis using recombinant antigen-based serologies in a community-wide study in northern Argentina,” Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol. 17, no. 10, pp. 1624–1630, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. K. J. Goka, D. D. K. Rolston, V. I. Mathan, and M. J. G. Farthing, “Diagnosis of Strongyloides and hookworm infections: comparison of faecal and duodenal fluid microscopy,” Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 829–831, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. H. Moghaddassani, H. Mirhendi, M. Hosseini, M. B. Rokni, G. Mowlavi, and E. Kia, “Molecular diagnosis of strongyloides stercoralis infection by PCR detection of specific DNA in human stool samples,” Iranian Journal of Parasitology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 23–30, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. B. F. Thompson, L. C. Fry, C. D. Wells et al., “The spectrum of GI strongyloidiasis: an endoscopic-pathologic study,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 906–910, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. Kishimoto, A. Hokama, T. Hirata et al., “Endoscopic and histopathological study on the duodenum of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 1768–1773, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Mejia and T. B. Nutman, “Screening, prevention, and treatment for hyperinfection syndrome and disseminated infections caused by Strongyloides stercoralis,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 458–463, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. R. Loutfy, M. Wilson, J. S. Keystone, and K. C. Kain, “Serology and eosinophil count in the diagnosis and management of strongyloidiasis in a non-endemic area,” American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 66, no. 6, pp. 749–752, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Montes, C. Sawhney, and N. Barros, “Strongyloides stercoralis: there but not seen,” Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 500–504, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Z. El Masry and J. O'Donnell, “Fatal stongyloides hyperinfection in heart transplantation,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1980–1983, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus