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Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2013, Article ID 581073, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/581073
Case Report

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Complicating Erythroleukemia in a Child with Monosomy 7: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

1Pediatric Congenital Hematologic Disorders Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Mofid Children’s Hospital, Tehran 15468-15514, Iran
2Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 13 September 2013; Accepted 25 November 2013

Academic Editors: U. Dasgupta and N. Hamerschlak

Copyright © 2013 Samin Alavi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Herein, the first case of childhood erythrophagocytosis following chemotherapy for erythroleukemia in a child with monosomy 7 is reported. A 5-year-old boy presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly in whom erythroleukemia was diagnosed. Prolonged pancytopenia accompanied by persistent fever and huge splenomegaly and hepatomegaly became evident after 2 courses of chemotherapy. On bone marrow aspiration, macrophages phagocytosing erythroid precursors were observed and the diagnosis of HLH was established; additionally, monosomy 7 was detected on bone marrow cytogenetic examination. In conclusion, monosomy 7 can lead to erythrophagocytosis associated with erythroid leukemia and should be considered among the chromosomal abnormalities contributing to the association.