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Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2013, Article ID 687260, 4 pages
Case Report

Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Complicating T-Cell Lymphoma in a Patient with HIV Infection

1Department of Internal Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
2Department of Pathology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA
3Division of Infectious Diseases, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA

Received 8 June 2013; Accepted 31 July 2013

Academic Editors: D. Galanakis and Y. Shiozawa

Copyright © 2013 Marc Uemura et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), while uncommon, may be a devastating complication of lymphoma and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. While several of the diagnostic criteria for HLH are relatively nonspecific, particularly in the setting of a systemic inflammatory response, more diagnostic specificity may be achieved with marked elevations in serum ferritin (e.g., >100,000 ng/mL). Increased suspicion of HLH, particularly in the setting of persistent, unexplained fevers, pancytopenia, and transaminitis, should prompt consideration of HLH. Earlier diagnosis and initiation of therapy have the potential to alter the natural history and poor prognosis of this disorder. We present a patient with HIV infection who developed relapsed T-cell lymphoma complicated by hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.