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Case Reports in Hematology
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5758368, 4 pages
Case Report

Morphological Transformation of Myeloma Cells into Multilobated Plasma Cell Nuclei within 7 Days in a Case of Secondary Plasma Cell Leukemia That Finally Transformed as Anaplastic Myeloma

1Department of Hematology, Sapporo Kiyota Hospital, Sapporo, Japan
2Department of Hematology and Oncology, Oji General Hospital, Tomakomai, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Akihito Fujimi

Received 3 September 2017; Revised 13 November 2017; Accepted 21 November 2017; Published 21 December 2017

Academic Editor: Marie-Christine Kyrtsonis

Copyright © 2017 Akihito Fujimi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A 48-year-old man was diagnosed with multiple myeloma (IgG-k) and was treated with high-dose dexamethasone as an induction therapy followed by thalidomide-based regimens. Approximately 22 months after the initial diagnosis, the patient developed secondary plasma cell leukemia (PCL) with a white blood cell (WBC) count of 20.2 × 109/L including 79.5% plasma cells. A G-banding chromosomal analysis in the bone marrow showed an t(11;14) abnormality of up to 5%, which was not detected at initial diagnosis. We immediately started bortezomib and dexamethasone therapy, but in just 7 days, the WBC count elevated to 48.5 × 109/L, and approximately 95% of them were medium-sized atypical lymphoid cells with multilobated nuclei. Although we subsequently initiated alternative regimens, the patient’s condition deteriorated, and he died 4 months after developing PCL. Approximately 2 months before his death, the diameter of myeloma cells in the bone marrow enlarged by approximately twofold, and pleomorphic nuclei were present, indicating an anaplastic myeloma transformation. Concurrently, a 100% increase of the t(11;14) clone frequency was observed in the G-banding-analyzed bone marrow cells. Morphological transformation of myeloma cells into multilobated plasma cell nuclei can be considered as the starting point of the sequential process leading to anaplastic myeloma.