Case Reports in Hematology https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Severe Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Patient with Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma after Standard Chemotherapy Sun, 22 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/5762525/ Clinically significant cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is not uncommon in patients with severe immunodeficiency secondary to underlying medical disorders or following aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. However, it is less frequently found in patients with low-grade haematological malignancies after nonintensive chemotherapy. We treated a patient at our centre for stage IVB follicular lymphoma with standard chemotherapy who successively developed CMV colitis associated with a CMV viral load of >3 million copies/ml. Four lines of antiviral treatment were necessary to obtain biochemical remission with undetectable CMV levels, with an initially insufficient response to valganciclovir despite therapeutic pre- and posttreatment levels. Subsequently, our patient also developed an infection with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) as further evidence of severe immune compromise. This case report demonstrates the importance of including investigations for less common sources of infection when confronted with a patient with a low-grade haematological malignancy and a pyrexia of unknown origin. Lena Modvig, Ciaran Boyle, Katie Randall, and Anton Borg Copyright © 2017 Lena Modvig et al. All rights reserved. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia with an e6a2 BCR-ABL1 Fusion Transcript: Cooperating Mutations at Blast Crisis and Molecular Monitoring Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/9071702/ A minority of chronic myeloid leukemia patients (CML) express a variety of atypical BCR-ABL1 fusion variants and, of these, the e6a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion is generally associated with an aggressive disease course. Progression of CML to blast crisis is associated with acquisition of additional somatic mutations yet these events have not been elucidated in patients with the e6a2 BCR-ABL1 genotype. Moreover, molecular monitoring is only sporadically performed in CML patients with atypical BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts due to lack of consensus approaches or standardization. A case of CML is described in which comprehensive molecular analysis, including targeted next-generation sequencing, revealed a single ASXL1 mutation cooperating with an e6a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript at blast crisis. A quantitative molecular monitoring approach was devised and adopted that reflected the disease response from initial treatment through allogeneic stem cell transplantation which resulted in undetectable e6a2 BCR-ABL1 transcripts. This case emphasizes the requirement for molecular monitoring in CML patients with atypical BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts and emphasizes that comprehensive sequencing has the potential to identify targets for novel therapies in CML patients with advanced disease. Mireille Crampe, Karl Haslam, Emma Groarke, Eileen Kelleher, Derville O’Shea, Eibhlin Conneally, and Stephen E. Langabeer Copyright © 2017 Mireille Crampe et al. All rights reserved. CD56-Negative Aggressive NK Cell Leukemia Relapsing as Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies: Case Report and Literature Review Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/3724017/ Background. Aggressive natural killer cell leukemia (ANKL) is extremely rare and habitually manifests as a systemic disease with multiorgan failure that rapidly evolves to death. The neoplastic natural killer (NK) cells usually harbor the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with a latent viral infection pattern type II; they often have a cytoplasmic CD3ε+ and surface CD3−, CD2+, and CD56+ immunophenotype, and they show complex genetic abnormalities affecting multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes. We present a rare case of CD56-negative ANKL and review the clinical and laboratorial criteria for the diagnosis, as well as the available therapies. Case Presentation. A European 36-year-old male presented with acute onset fever, pallor, weakness, and jaundice. He had hepatosplenomegaly, severe pancytopenia, hepatic cytolysis, and very high serum lactic dehydrogenase levels. The bone marrow studies resulted in the diagnosis of an EBV-positive, CD56-negative ANKL. The patient failed to respond to gemcitabine and cisplatin-based polychemotherapy, dying three months later with leukemic meningitis and multiple cranial nerves palsies. Conclusions. The diagnosis of ANKL is difficult and requires both clinical suspicion and an extensive laboratorial approach. Absence of CD56 expression on the neoplastic NK cells may impose difficulties in the diagnosis, which requires morphological, immunophenotypic, histopathological, immunohistochemical, cytogenetic, and molecular studies. M. Guerreiro, F. Príncipe, M. J. Teles, S. Fonseca, A. H. Santos, E. Fonseca, P. Gomes, C. Marques, and M. Lima Copyright © 2017 M. Guerreiro et al. All rights reserved. Acquired Elliptocytosis as a Manifestation of Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Ring Sideroblasts and Multilineage Dysplasia Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/3625946/ Acquired elliptocytosis is a known but rarely described abnormality in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Here we report the case of an elderly male who was admitted to the hospital with chest pain, dyspnea, and fatigue and was found to be anemic with an elliptocytosis that had only recently been noted on peripheral smears of his blood. After bone marrow biopsy he was diagnosed with MDS with ring sideroblasts and multilineage dysplasia and acquired elliptocytosis. Here we report a rare case of acquired elliptocytosis cooccurring with MDS with ring sideroblasts and multilineage dysplasia. Jacob D. Kjelland, Denis M. Dwyre, and Brian A. Jonas Copyright © 2017 Jacob D. Kjelland et al. All rights reserved. Splenic Infarct and Pulmonary Embolism as a Rare Manifestation of Cytomegalovirus Infection Wed, 11 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/1850821/ Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpes infection that has a characteristic feature of maintaining lifelong latency within the host cell. CMV manifestations can cover a broad spectrum from fever to as severe as pancytopenia, hepatitis, retinitis, meningoencephalitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, pneumonia, and thrombosis. Multiple case reports of thrombosis associated with CMV have been reported. Deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism is more common in immunocompetent patients while splenic infarct is more common in immunocompromised patients. However, here we report a female patient on low-dose methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis who presented with both pulmonary embolism and splenic infarct. Prashanth Rawla, Anantha R. Vellipuram, Sathyajit S. Bandaru, and Jeffrey Pradeep Raj Copyright © 2017 Prashanth Rawla et al. All rights reserved. PAX5-Negative Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Case Report of a Rare Entity and Review of the Literature Wed, 04 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/7531729/ Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) is recognized as a B-cell neoplasm arising from germinal center or postgerminal center B-cells. The hallmark of CHL is the presence of CD30 (+) Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells with dim expression of PAX5. Nearly all of the HRS cells are positive for PAX5. However, a small minority of HRS cells may lack PAX5 expression, which can cause a diagnostic dilemma. Herein we describe two cases of PAX5-negative CHL and review of the English literature on this very rare entity. It is crucial to be aware of this phenomenon, which in some cases may lead to misdiagnosis and may ultimately adversely affect patient’s management. Elham Vali Betts, Denis M. Dwyre, Huan-You Wang, and Hooman H. Rashidi Copyright © 2017 Elham Vali Betts et al. All rights reserved. Heterozygous Hemoglobin Sherwood Forest Causing Polycythemia Thu, 28 Sep 2017 13:42:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/8174207/ Hemoglobin (Hb) Sherwood Forest is a rare high-affinity hemoglobin first described in 1977, arising from an Arg to Thr substitution at codon 104 of the beta chain. This hemoglobin variant has been identified in few individuals and has been associated with a compensatory erythrocytosis in the homozygous state. Prior scarce case reports have noted that heterozygotes for this variant are phenotypically normal. Here we present a patient who was evaluated in our hematology clinic for chronic erythrocytosis and was found to be heterozygous for Hb Sherwood Forest. No other primary or secondary cause of his polycythemia was identified. This is the first described case of heterozygous Hemoglobin Sherwood Forest causing erythrocytosis. Vikram M. Raghunathan, James N. Butera, and Diana O. Treaba Copyright © 2017 Vikram M. Raghunathan et al. All rights reserved. Polycythaemia Secondary to Hormone Replacement Therapy with Tibolone Wed, 27 Sep 2017 09:37:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/3476349/ We present the case report of a patient with severe polycythaemia associated with tibolone. In our 65-year-old postmenopausal patient who initially presented with haemoglobin 203 g/L [115–160] and haematocrit 0.63 [0.32–0.47], the cessation of tibolone, a synthetic hormone replacement therapy, led to a dramatic and sustained resolution of this patient’s polycythaemia to normal haematological values. Tibolone possesses oestrogenic, androgenic, and progestogenic properties. Tibolone therapy may be an infrequently recognized contributor towards polycythaemia in postmenopausal patients presenting to haematology clinics. Laura Staples, Tamara Milder, and Philip Young-Ill Choi Copyright © 2017 Laura Staples et al. All rights reserved. Primary Cutaneous Follicle Centre Lymphoma with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg Like Cells: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Tue, 26 Sep 2017 09:54:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/9549428/ An elderly woman with a complex medical history presented with a left forearm mass that slowly developed for several months. The excisional biopsy of this skin mass was remarkable for involvement by a follicle centre cell derived lymphoma with a nodular and diffuse pattern associated with a subset of scattered Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg like cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies did not detect the presence of IgH-bcl2 fusion transcript, and molecular studies were negative for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements and EBV DNA sequences. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg like cells are rarely reported in FLs, and the association with primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphoma is extremely rarely seen. To our knowledge, our case is the second case of primary cutaneous follicle centre lymphoma with Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg like cells. Fatima A. Aldarweesh and Diana O. Treaba Copyright © 2017 Fatima A. Aldarweesh and Diana O. Treaba. All rights reserved. A Case of Rituximab-Induced Necrotizing Fasciitis and a Review of the Literature Tue, 26 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/6971027/ Necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant soft tissue infection characterized by rapid progression and high mortality. Rituximab is a generally well-tolerated immunosuppresive medication used for B-cell malignancies and some rheumatological disorders. We report a case of a 69-year-old male with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who suffered necrotizing fasciitis of his left lower extremity secondary to Clostridium septicum 7 weeks after treatment with rituximab. Despite immediate intravenous antimicrobial therapy and emergent fasciotomy with extensive debridement, his hospital course was complicated by septic shock and he required an above-the-knee amputation. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of necrotizing fasciitis in patients presenting with skin infections after rituximab therapy. Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Ryan S. D’Souza, Oluwaseun Shogbesan, and Anthony Donato Copyright © 2017 Abdullateef Abdulkareem et al. All rights reserved. Upper Limb Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patient with Hemophilia A and Heterozygosity for Prothrombin G20210A: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 25 Sep 2017 10:02:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/7290945/ Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a rare disease in patients with hemophilia A. We report a case of 22-year-old male with severe hemophilia A who presented to the emergency room with 5-day history of right arm pain that was attributed initially to bleeding event. In the absence of external signs of bleeding or hematoma and normal hemoglobin level, we suspected an underlying DVT. Doppler ultrasonography of the right upper limb revealed thrombosis of the subclavian vein and this was confirmed by CT venography. The d-dimer level was normal and investigations for prothrombotic state revealed heterozygosity for prothrombin G20210A mutation. Treatment with factor VIII and low molecular weight heparin led to successful resolution and marked improvement of his clinical condition. Fares Darawshy, Yosef Kalish, Issam Hendi, Ayman Abu Rmelieh, and Tawfik Khoury Copyright © 2017 Fares Darawshy et al. All rights reserved. Unusual Presentation of a Small-Cell Variant of Anaplastic Large-Cell Lymphoma Case: When a Septic Picture Is Not Sepsis Sun, 24 Sep 2017 09:57:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/7292148/ We report a case of a small-cell variant of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, with an unusual clinical presentation mimicking sepsis and a fulminant clinic course, in a 48-year-old Caucasian female. In this report, we discuss the diagnostic challenge, histopathologic features, and unique cytogenetic features of this case, in order to raise awareness of this rare presentation and emphasize the importance of meticulous peripheral smear examination and early bone marrow evaluation. Zhou Yu, Yifan Pang, Linda Wang, Daniel E. Ezekwudo, Foluso Ogunleye, Susanna S. Gaikazian, Mark Micale, James Huang, Ann Marie Blenc, and Ishmael Jaiyesimi Copyright © 2017 Zhou Yu et al. All rights reserved. γδ T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia/Lymphoma: Discussion of Two Pediatric Cases and Its Distinction from Other Mature γδ T-Cell Malignancies Sun, 24 Sep 2017 09:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/5873015/ Gamma delta () T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) expression and its related T-cell differentiation are not commonly reported in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (T-ALL). Here we report two pediatric T-ALL cases and present their clinical features, histology, immunophenotypes, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostic findings. The first patient is a two-year-old girl with leukocytosis, circulating lymphoblasts, and a cryptic insertion of a short-arm segment at 10p12 into the long-arm segment of 11q23 resulting in an MLL and AF10 fusion transcript, which may be the first reported in T-ALL. She responded to the chemotherapy protocol poorly and had persistent diseases. Following an allogeneic bone marrow transplant, she went into remission. The second patient is an eleven-year-old boy with a normal white cell count, circulating blasts, and a normal karyotype, but without any immature cellular markers by flow cytometric analysis. He responded to the chemotherapy well and achieved a complete remission. These cases demonstrate the diverse phenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular aspects of T-ALL. Early T-precursor- (ETP-) ALL and their differential diagnosis from other mature T-cell leukemia/lymphomas are also discussed. Eric X. Wei, Vasiliki Leventaki, John K. Choi, Susana C. Raimondi, Elizabeth M. Azzato, Sheila A. Shurtleff, Menchu G. Ong, Diana M. Veillon, James D. Cotelingam, and Rodney E. Shackelford Copyright © 2017 Eric X. Wei et al. All rights reserved. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria in Pregnancy: A Dilemma in Treatment and Thromboprophylaxis Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/7289126/ Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a hematologic disorder characterized by an acquired somatic mutation in the phosphatidylinositol glycan class A gene which leads to a higher risk for increased venous and arterial thrombosis. Current treatment for PNH includes eculizumab. Pregnant patients who have PNH have higher risk for thrombosis and hemorrhage with both pregnancy and their underlying PNH. Treatment frequently poses conundrum. The safety and efficacy of eculizumab during pregnancy and breast feeding have not been extensively studied and contraception has been recommended due to potential for teratogenicity. We present a case of a patient who was safely on both eculizumab and modest prophylactic anticoagulation for 6 weeks post-partum. Arpan Patel, Athira Unnikrishnan, Martina Murphy, Robert Egerman, Sarah Wheeler, Ashley Richards, and John Wingard Copyright © 2017 Arpan Patel et al. All rights reserved. Plasmablastic Lymphoma: Case Report of Prolonged Survival of an Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Patient and Literature Review Sun, 24 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/9561013/ Clinical Practice Points. Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare and highly aggressive variant of diffuse large B cell lymphoma with median survival of advanced stage patients varying between 6 and 15 months in previous reports. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient surviving over 12 years following treatment for advanced PBL with EPOCH chemotherapy and intrathecal therapy. This case highlights the potential for improved survival in PBL with intensive chemotherapy. Further, literature review suggests promising prospects utilizing novel targeted therapies to increase the rate of prolonged responses. Hind Rafei, Ehab El-Bahesh, Antoine Finianos, Min-Ling L. Liu, and Geraldine P. Schechter Copyright © 2017 Hind Rafei et al. All rights reserved. An Unsuspected Finding of t(9;22): A Rare Case of Philadelphia Chromosome-Positive B-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Mon, 18 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/2413587/ While rare, cases of isolated extramedullary disease of B-cell Lymphoblastic Lymphoma (B-LBL) without morphologic bone marrow involvement have been described. In this report, we illustrate the case of an elderly gentleman who presented with isolated testicular and vertebral LBL involvement but had no morphologic bone marrow involvement. The initial plan of treatment was to treat along the lines of Philadelphia negative B-ALL/LBL. During this time, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR testing for BCR-ABL1 rearrangements were being performed on the marrow specimens as a part of routine diagnostic workup. While the FISH returned negative, PCR testing unexpectedly detected BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts at a low level of 0.48%. Given their presence, we performed FISH for BCR/ABL1 rearrangement in both testicular and L5 vertebral specimens which were 80–90% positive. He subsequently received rituximab, hyper-CVAD, and dasatinib, along with prophylactic intrathecal prophylactic chemotherapy. The patient achieved a prolonged remission but eventually relapsed, 4 years later. Had it not been for this fortuitous discovery, the patient would not have been treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We emphasize that FISH and PCR testing for BCR-ABL1 rearrangement are integral to arriving at an accurate diagnosis and should be routinely tested on B-LBL biopsy specimens. Prajwal Boddu, C. Cameron Yin, Rashmi Kanagal-Shamanna, Guillin Tang, Beenu Thakral, Tapan Kadia, Marina Konopleva, Elias Jabbour, and Nitin Jain Copyright © 2017 Prajwal Boddu et al. All rights reserved. HbS-Sicilian (δβ)0-Thalassemia: A Rare Variant of Sickle Cell Sun, 17 Sep 2017 08:41:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/9265396/ Sickle cell disease (SCD) is caused by a mutation in the sixth codon of the -globin gene on chromosome 11, which leads to a single amino acid substitution (glutamine to valine). Sickle-(δβ)0-thalassemia is a rare variant of sickle cell disease (delta-beta thalassemia occurring in association with sickle hemoglobin, HbS), sparsely reported in literature, and has been associated with symptomatology necessitating careful monitoring and follow-up. We describe a patient who presented with a newborn screen reported as “FS” and a negative family history for sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait. Subsequent gene sequencing studies demonstrated the presence of Sickle-(δβ)0-thalassemia. Clinical course has remained relatively stable for this patient now at 18 months of age without any SCD related symptomatology or complications. As this is a rare variant of SCD with potential complications, it is important to establish diagnosis towards planning comprehensive care. Grace Onimoe and Genine Smarzo Copyright © 2017 Grace Onimoe and Genine Smarzo. All rights reserved. Cutaneous Vasculitis: An Unusual Presentation of a Biclonal Nodal Plasma Cell Dyscrasia Wed, 13 Sep 2017 10:05:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/8152610/ We describe an unusual case of a biclonal nodal plasma cell dyscrasia, presenting with a vasculitic rash, end-organ damage, and cytopenias. Serum protein electrophoresis demonstrated a biclonal kappa-restricted paraprotein, with a negative skeletal survey and no bone marrow disease. Fluorodeoxyglucose-PET-CT (FDG-PET-CT) revealed nodal involvement, which was not appreciable clinically, and facilitated biopsy, confirming the diagnosis of a nodal plasmacytoma. Complete biochemical response and resolution of the vasculitic rash were achieved with bortezomib-based therapy. D. Swan, M. Murphy, and E. Elhassadi Copyright © 2017 D. Swan et al. All rights reserved. Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in a Patient with Worsening Ascites after Liver Transplantation Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/7247438/ Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a spectrum of diseases that involves abnormal lymphoid and/or plasmacytic proliferation in patients with solid organ or hematopoietic cell transplantation. It is a condition with a low incidence of 3.5–4.3% in liver transplant (LT) recipients. This case involves a 63-year-old male with history of LT for chronic HCV induced cirrhosis who presented with abdominal distension related to worsening ascites. Cytological ascitic fluid analysis revealed EBV (+) malignant cells without a malignant focal point on imaging. Diagnosis of monomorphic PTLD with primary effusion lymphoma-like morphology and immunophenotype was established. This case highlights the complexity in diagnosis, different diagnostic modalities, and rare clinical presentations of PTLD. Harsh D. Patel and Moises I. Nevah Rubin Copyright © 2017 Harsh D. Patel and Moises I. Nevah Rubin. All rights reserved. Immune-Mediated Autonomic Neuropathies following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/6803804/ Background/Aims. Autonomic dysfunction (AD) after allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) is a rare occurrence and likely immune-mediated in etiology. There is limited literature on this topic and hence, we wish to briefly describe management of two cases at our institution and their outcomes. Methods. We retrospectively identified two patients with immune-mediated AD after SCT from our database. Immune-mediated AD was defined as AD secondary to an immune-mediated etiology without an alternative cause and responding to immunosuppression. Results. The first case is of a 32-year-old man with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent double umbilical cord allogeneic SCT. The second patient was a 51-year-old woman with secondary AML who underwent matched-related donor allogeneic SCT. Both underwent an extensive work-up for an underlying etiology prior to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Conclusions. AD after SCT is a rare yet significant clinical entity. A work-up of underlying etiology should be performed. IVIG is a treatment option for these patients. Abhishek Mangaonkar, Hassan Al Khateeb, Narjust Duma, Erik K. St. Louis, Andrew McKeon, Mrinal Patnaik, William Hogan, Mark Litzow, and Taxiarchis Kourelis Copyright © 2017 Abhishek Mangaonkar et al. All rights reserved. Acute Unilateral Renal Infarction in the Setting of an Inherited Thrombophilia and Atrial Septal Defect Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/3159363/ We present a case of renal infarction in a 43-year-old female with history of stroke at age 14. She was found to be heterozygous for the prothrombin G20210A gene mutation. Loop monitoring revealed no atrial fibrillation. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms showed no thrombus. However, there was a small shunt due to an atrial septal defect (ASD). She was treated with warfarin and had device closure of her ASD. This was a suspected case of paradoxical embolism through an ASD leading to renal infarction. Siavash Piran and Sam Schulman Copyright © 2017 Siavash Piran and Sam Schulman. All rights reserved. Ponatinib as a Valid Alternative Strategy in Patients with Blast Crisis-Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Not Eligible for Allogeneic Stem Cells Transplantation and/or Conventional Chemotherapy: Report of a Case Mon, 14 Aug 2017 07:25:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/6167345/ Currently, imatinib and dasatinib are the only tyrosine-kinase inhibitors approved in the US and Europe for the treatment of blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia (BC-CML) at diagnosis, while ponatinib is the only inhibitor used in patients bearing T315I mutation. Here we report the case of a 61-year-old man diagnosed with B-cell lymphoid BC-CML, initially treated with imatinib 800 mg day and then with dasatinib 140 mg day because of intolerance. A complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved at three months; however, three months later a relapse was observed, and the T315I mutation was detected. Ponatinib 45 mg once daily was then started together with a short course of chemotherapy. Bone marrow evaluation after six months of therapy showed the regaining of CCyR, together with the achievement of a deep molecular response. However, one year from ponatinib start the patient experienced a new disease relapse; he was effectively treated with ponatinib and chemotherapy once again, but in the meanwhile an ischemic stroke was detected. This case report confirms the high efficacy of ponatinib monotherapy in BC-CML patients, representing a valid option for non-allogeneic stem cells transplantation eligible cases and the only one available for those carrying the T315I mutation. Cristina Bucelli, Daniele Cattaneo, Valeria Ferla, Manuela Zappa, Caterina de Benedittis, Simona Soverini, and Alessandra Iurlo Copyright © 2017 Cristina Bucelli et al. All rights reserved. High-Grade B-Cell Neoplasm with Surface Light Chain Restriction and Tdt Coexpression Evolved in a MYC-Rearranged Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Dilemma in Classification Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/6891957/ According to World Health Organization (WHO) classification (2008), B-cell neoplasms are classified into precursor B-cell or a mature B-cell phenotype and this classification was also kept in the latest WHO revision (2016). We are reporting a male patient in his fifties, with tonsillar swelling diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), germinal center. He received 6 cycles of RCHOP and showed complete metabolic response. Two months later, he presented with severe CNS symptoms. Flow cytometry on bone marrow (BM) showed infiltration by CD10-positive Kappa-restricted B-cells with loss of CD20 and CD19, and downregulation of CD79b. Moreover, the malignant population showed Tdt expression. BM Cytogenetics revealed t(8;14)(q24;q32) within a complex karyotype. Retrospectively, MYC and Tdt immunostains performed on original diagnostic tissue and came negative for Tdt and positive for MYC. It has been rarely reported that mature B-cell neoplasms present with features of immaturity; however the significance of Tdt acquisition during disease course was not addressed before. What is unique in this case is that the emerging disease has acquired an immaturity marker while retaining some features of the original mature clone. No definitive WHO category would adopt high-grade neoplasms that exhibit significant overlapping features between mature and immature phenotypes. Dina Sameh Soliman, Ahmad Al-Sabbagh, Feryal Ibrahim, Ruba Y. Taha, Zafar Nawaz, Sarah Elkourashy, Abdulrazzaq Haider, Susanna Akiki, and Mohamed Yassin Copyright © 2017 Dina Sameh Soliman et al. All rights reserved. Decreased Rivaroxaban Levels in a Patient with Cerebral Vein Thrombosis Receiving Phenytoin Thu, 10 Aug 2017 06:29:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/4760612/ Combined use of antiepileptic drugs and anticoagulants is common. We describe the first case documenting laboratory interaction between rivaroxaban and phenytoin. A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to cerebral venous thrombosis, bilateral pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis. She came from a small town with difficult access to warfarin monitoring. She was receiving phenytoin 100 mg three times daily (t.i.d.) and started enoxaparin 60 mg twice daily (b.i.d.). An abdominal mass was diagnosed and removed by laparoscopy (gastrointestinal stromal tumor). On day 5, she was switched to rivaroxaban 15 mg b.i.d. First peak anti-Factor Xa was 70 ng/ml (reference value: 100–300 ng/ml). She was discharged on rivaroxaban 15 mg b.i.d. and phenytoin 100 mg t.i.d. A week later, anti-Xa levels were 90 ng/ml. Due to concerns about thrombosis progression, she was switched to dabigatran. During follow-up, she remained asymptomatic and thrombin time >180 s was measured several times along 3 months as surrogate for dabigatran activity. Phenytoin is a combined CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein inducer, which might reduce rivaroxaban levels. Dabigatran is substrate of P-glycoprotein, meaning potential malabsorption. Despite unavailability of plasmatic dabigatran essays, our patient improved her symptoms without further symptomatic thromboembolism. Facing these interactions, either monitoring serum levels of anticoagulants or other therapeutic options should be considered. Ana F. Becerra, Tomas Amuchastegui, and Aldo H. Tabares Copyright © 2017 Ana F. Becerra et al. All rights reserved. Bone Marrow-Liver-Spleen Type of Large B-Cell Lymphoma Associated with Hemophagocytic Syndrome: A Rare Aggressive Extranodal Lymphoma Tue, 01 Aug 2017 08:10:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/8496978/ Recently, an unusual subtype of large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) with distinctive clinicopathologic features has been recognized; it is characterized by involvement of bone marrow with or without liver and/or spleen, but no lymph node or other extranodal sites, usually associated with fever, anemia, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Because of this distinctive clinical presentation, it has been designated “bone marrow-liver-spleen” (BLS) type of LBCL. To date there is only one series of 11 cases of BLS type of LBCL with detailed clinical, pathologic, and cytogenetic data. Herein, we describe a case of BLS type LBCL presenting with associated HLH in a 73-year-old female. The bone marrow core biopsy showed cytologically atypical large lymphoma cells present in a scattered interstitial distribution and hemophagocytosis and infrequent large lymphoma cells were seen in the bone marrow aspirate smears. Circulating lymphoma cells were not seen in the peripheral blood smears. The patient underwent treatment with chemotherapy (R-CHOP) but unfortunately passed away 2 months after initial presentation. BLS type of LBCL is a very rare and clinically aggressive lymphoma whose identification may be delayed by clinicians and hematopathologists due to its unusual clinical presentation and pathologic features. Kirill A. Lyapichev, Jennifer R. Chapman, Oleksii Iakymenko, Offiong F. Ikpatt, Uygar Teomete, Sandra Patricia Sanchez, and Francisco Vega Copyright © 2017 Kirill A. Lyapichev et al. All rights reserved. Sequential Kinase Inhibition (Idelalisib/Ibrutinib) Induces Clinical Remission in B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia Harboring a 17p Deletion Thu, 27 Jul 2017 08:32:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/8563218/ B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (B-PLL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm with an aggressive clinical course. Treatment strategies for B-PLL remain to be established, and, until recently, alemtuzumab was the only effective therapeutic option in patients harboring 17p deletions. Herein, we describe, for the first time, a case of B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia harboring a 17p deletion in a 48-year-old man that was successfully treated sequentially with idelalisib-rituximab/ibrutinib followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT). After 5 months of therapy with idelalisib-rituximab, clinical remission was achieved, but the development of severe diarrhea led to its discontinuation. Subsequently, the patient was treated for 2 months with ibrutinib and the quality of the response was maintained with no severe adverse effects reported. A reduced-intensity conditioning allo-HSCT from a HLA-matched unrelated donor was performed, and, thereafter, the patient has been in complete remission for 10 months now. In conclusion, given the poor prognosis of B-PLL and the lack of effective treatment modalities, the findings here suggest that both ibrutinib and idelalisib should be considered as upfront therapy of B-PLL and as a bridge to allo-HSCT. H. Coelho, M. Badior, and T. Melo Copyright © 2017 H. Coelho et al. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Complete Remission in a Patient with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Severe Sepsis Mon, 24 Jul 2017 07:24:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/9593750/ Without treatment, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is almost always fatal. Spontaneous remission of AML is a rare phenomenon and usually with a short duration. The exact mechanisms are unknown. However, its association with infection and blood transfusions has been described. We report a 53-year-old male who presented with severe sepsis and who was diagnosed with AML (M4). He has experienced complete spontaneous remission with relatively long duration. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of spontaneous remission described in Iran. Rambod Mozafari, Mahsa Moeinian, and Ali Asadollahi-Amin Copyright © 2017 Rambod Mozafari et al. All rights reserved. Immune Thrombocytopenia and JAK2V617F Positive Essential Thrombocythemia: Literature Review and Case Report Thu, 20 Jul 2017 08:14:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/3725089/ We present the case where immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) sequentially appeared in the space of twenty-one years of follow-up. Impaired platelet production is present in both diseases, but clinical presentation and treatment are different. On the basis of this case history a possible role of autoimmunity as a predisposing factor to myeloproliferation has been discussed. M. A. Sobas, T. Wróbel, K. Zduniak, M. Podolak-Dawidziak, J. Rybka, M. Biedroń, M. Sawicki, J. Dybko, and K. Kuliczkowski Copyright © 2017 M. A. Sobas et al. All rights reserved. Large Granular Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Report of Response to Rituximab Tue, 18 Jul 2017 07:16:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/7506542/ Large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia is a rare form of low grade leukemia characterized by large cytotoxic T cells or natural killer cells on morphological examination. Immunosuppressive therapy is employed as first-line therapy. Treatment options in refractory cases include the anti-CD52 antibody alemtuzumab and purine analogues. We report a rare case that responded to the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab. A 77-year-old female presented with complaints of fatigue, fever, and chills of 3 months’ duration. A CBC showed that pancytopenia with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 0. Peripheral blood flow cytometry detected increased number of T cell large granular lymphocytes and T cell receptor rearrangement study detected a clonal T cell population. Bone marrow biopsy showed peripheral T cell lymphoma, most consistent with T-large granulocytic leukemia. The patient was treated with prednisone and oral cyclophosphamide for four months with no response. Thereafter, she received four weekly infusions of rituximab with improvement in her blood counts. A response to rituximab in refractory cases such as ours has been reported and may guide us towards exploring other immune-based therapeutics in this rare disease. Uroosa Ibrahim, Sara Parylo, Shiksha Kedia, Shafinaz Hussein, and Jean Paul Atallah Copyright © 2017 Uroosa Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. Ibrutinib Treatment of Mantle Cell Lymphoma Relapsing at Central Nervous System: A Case Report and Literature Review Sun, 16 Jul 2017 07:36:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/crihem/2017/9583257/ Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) accounts for about 5% of all lymphomas. Its clinical and histological features are heterogeneous. After a frequently good initial response, the disease generally and repeatedly relapses and finally the outcome is poor. Particularly severe is the prognosis of the rare occurrence of CNSi (Central Nervous System involvement). Ibrutinib, an oral inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK), has shown strong activity in relapsing patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and MCL. Few reports are available about treatment with ibrutinib of patients presenting CNSi by lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). In all of them, ibrutinib, at the dosage between 420 and 560 mg/day, showed an impressive effectiveness. Here we describe a case of MCL with CNS relapse showing an excellent response to ibrutinib administered at the unusual dose of 280 mg/day because of concomitant treatment of cardiological disease. Donato Mannina and Barbara Loteta Copyright © 2017 Donato Mannina and Barbara Loteta. All rights reserved.