Clarithromycin-Associated Acute Liver Failure Leading to Fatal, Massive Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage from Profound Coagulopathy: Case Report and Systematic Literature ReviewRead the full article
Case Reports in Hepatology publishes case reports and case series related to the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
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Hepatocellular Glycogen Accumulation in the Setting of Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: Case Report and Review of the Literature
Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is the accumulation of glycogen in the hepatocytes and represents a rare complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), most commonly type 1 DM. We present a case of a 23-year-old woman with a medical history of poorly controlled type 1 DM and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) who presented with progressively worsening right-sided abdominal pain. Diagnostic workup resulted in a liver biopsy with hepatocytes that stained heavily for glycogen with no evidence of fibrosis or steatohepatitis. A diagnosis of glycogenic hepatopathy was made, and an aggressive glucose control regimen was implemented leading to resolution of symptoms and improvement in AST, ALT, and ALP. In addition to presenting this rare case, we offer a review of literature and draw important distinctions between glycogenic hepatopathy and other differential diagnoses with the aim of assisting providers in the diagnostic workup and treatment of glycogenic hepatopathy.
The Fire from Within: Multiorgan Failure with Bimodal Rhabdomyolysis from Exertional Heat Stroke
Heat stroke (HS) is a condition characterized by a rise in core body temperature and central nervous system dysfunction. It is divided into two types: classical and exertional. Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is accompanied by organ failure. Liver injury, presenting only with a rise in liver enzymes, is common but in rare conditions, acute liver failure (ALF) may ensue, leading to a potentially lethal condition. Most cases of EHS-induced ALF are managed conservatively. However, liver transplantation is considered for cases refractory to supportive treatment. Identifying patients eligible for liver transplantation in the context of an EHS-induced ALF becomes a medical dilemma since the conventional prognostic criterion may be difficult to apply, and there is paucity of literature about these specific sets of individuals. Recently, extracorporeal liver support has been gaining popularity for patients with liver failure as a bridge to liver transplant. In this case report, we present a young Filipino athlete with symptoms and clinical course consistent with EHS that developed multiorgan failure, initially considered a candidate for liver transplant and total plasma exchange, but clinically improved with supportive management alone. This patient was also found to have bimodal rhabdomyolysis during the course of his hospital stay as manifested by the bimodal rise in his creatine kinase enzymes.
Successful Kidney Transplantation in a Recipient Coinfected with Hepatitis C Genotype 2 and HIV from a Donor Infected with Hepatitis C Genotype 1 in the Direct-Acting Antiviral Era
Despite significant advances in transplantation of HIV-infected individuals, little is known about HIV coinfected patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes other than genotype 1, especially when receiving HCV-infected organs with a different genotype. We describe the first case of kidney transplantation in a man coinfected with hepatitis C and HIV in our state. To our knowledge, this is also the first report of an HIV/HCV/HBV tri-infected patient with non-1 (2a) HCV genotype who received an HCV-infected kidney graft with the discordant genotype (1a), to which he converted after transplant. Our case study highlights the following: (1) transplant centers need to monitor wait times for an HCV-infected organ and regularly assess the risk of delaying HCV antiviral treatment for HCV-infected transplant candidates in anticipation of the transplant from an HCV-infected donor; (2) closer monitoring of tacrolimus levels during the early phases of anti-HCV protease inhibitor introduction and discontinuation may be indicated; (3) donor genotype transmission can occur; (4) HIV/HCV coinfected transplant candidates require a holistic approach with emphasis on the cardiovascular risk profile and low threshold for cardiac catheterization as part of their pretransplant evaluation.
Zinc Monotherapy as an Alternative Treatment Option for Decompensated Liver Disease due to Wilson Disease?
Background. Wilson disease is a rare metabolic disorder involving copper metabolism, and patients may present with a variable degree of hepatic, neurologic, and psychiatric manifestations. In the case of hepatic presentation, treatment is usually initiated with potentially toxic copper chelators (D-penicillamine or Trenton). Although zinc is of low toxicity and low cost for treatment of Wilson disease, it has been limited to the adjunctive as a single maintenance drug or for asymptomatic patients. The use of zinc monotherapy in patients suffering from a severe liver disease was not well studied. In our case report, we describe a pediatric patient who presented with liver failure and the use of zinc monotherapy in patients with severe hepatic manifestations. Case presentation. A 15-year-old male patient from Ethiopia presented with generalized body swelling (edema and ascites) with yellowish discoloration of his eyes and easy fatigability. He had hyperbilirubinemia, coagulopathy, hypoalbuminemia, and deranged liver enzymes. He had a Keyser–Fleischer ring visible with the naked eye, which was confirmed by slit-lamp examination. He had very low serum ceruloplasmin (<8 mg/L) and high 24-hour urine copper (150 mcg/dl). In accordance with the scoring system proposed by the 8th International Meeting on Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease, a diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. Zinc monotherapy with low copper diet was initiated for decompensated liver disease due to Wilson disease because of the inaccessibility of chelators (D-penicillamine or Trientine). After months of treatment with zinc, the patient experienced normalization of hepatic synthetic function and resolution of hypoalbuminemia and coagulopathy. The patient had also clinically stabilized (ascites, lower extremity swelling, edema, and jaundice were improved. Currently, the patient is on follow-up almost for the last four years in the gastrointestinal clinic. Conclusion. Our case shows that zinc has the potential for treatment in improving liver function. Though zinc has its own side effects, it is important and maybe an alternative treatment option in those with limited resources (not able to access chelators). This example hopefully will encourage future investigations and researches on zinc monotherapy for treating symptomatic decompensated hepatic Wilson disease.
Benefit of N-Acetylcysteine in Postoperative Hepatic Dysfunction: Case Report and Review of Literature
N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is reported to have multiple clinical applications in addition to being the specific antidote for acetaminophen toxicity. NAC stimulates glutathione biosynthesis, promotes detoxification, and acts directly as a scavenger of free radicals. It is a powerful antioxidant and a potential treatment option for diseases characterized by the generation of free oxygen radicals. We present a case of postoperative hepatic dysfunction of multifactorial etiology in a patient with therapeutic acetaminophen levels, where hepatic function improved considerably following administration of intravenous NAC. This case suggests that NAC should be considered for treatment of acute liver dysfunction in the postoperative setting, even in the absence of elevated acetaminophen levels.
Hepatic Sarcoidosis Complicated with Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma
Sarcoidosis is a systemic noncaseous granulomatous disease. The liver is a common location but usually asymptomatic. Current literature suggests an association between sarcoidosis and cancers. However, there is a lack of definite evidence. We present a case of a 59-year-old man with jaundice and acutely elevated alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis was confirmed by obtaining a liver biopsy and was treated with 6 months of steroids. A year later, he had a recurrence of jaundice. MRCP showed biliary dilatation and a mass in the pancreatic head, confirmed by biopsy to be adenocarcinoma. This is the first case to be reported of hepatic sarcoidosis associated with pancreatic cancer.