An Interesting Case of Isolated False-Reactive Hepatitis B Surface AntigenRead the full article
Case Reports in Hepatology publishes case reports and case series related to the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
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Acute Hepatitis Induced by Intravesical BCG Therapy: A Rare but Serious Complication
Bacillus Calmette and Guérin (BCG), widely used as a vaccination to prevent tuberculosis, is also used as immunotherapy, by intrabladder instillation, to treat superficial bladder cancers and prevent recurrence. Complications following instillation of BCG are most often localized reactions, such as cystitis or hematuria. They can more rarely be generalized and potentially severe such as hepatitis, pneumopathies, aortitis, and localization to hematopoietic tissue. We have reported the observation of a 47-year-old patient followed up for a bladder tumor operated for transurethral resection of the bladder, then having benefited from an instillation of BCG therapy complicated by occurrence a week later of an acute hepatitis. The diagnostic time was 2 days, and the outcome was favorable with corticosteroid therapy.
Acute Hepatitis A Causing Severe Hemolysis and Renal Failure in Undiagnosed Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Infection with hepatitis A virus is usually a self-limited illness that rarely results in fulminant liver failure. Severe hemolysis is an uncommon complication but has been reported in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Here, we report a case with undiagnosed G6PD deficiency who presented with hyperbilirubinemia, severe hemolysis, and acute renal failure precipitated by acute hepatitis A infection.
Guillain–Barré Syndrome Likely due to Relapsing Hepatitis A
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system that can be caused by various bacterial and virologic agents. The disease is characterized by progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. Rarely, GBS is preceded by an acute infection with hepatitis A. Here, we present the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with progressively worsening motor weakness in the distal extremities. She reported a preceding gastrointestinal infection with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea two weeks prior to her presentation to the emergency department. She was noted to have elevated serum transaminase levels and hepatitis A IgM and IgG antibodies signifying likely relapsing hepatitis A. She was later diagnosed with GBS on the basis of clinical findings and albuminocytologic dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin with subsequent improvement in her strength.
Management of Acute Wilsonian Hepatitis with Severe Hemolysis: A Successful Combination of Chelation and MARS Dialysis
Wilson’s disease is a rare hereditary disorder of copper metabolism leading to progressive accumulation of copper in several organs including the brain and the liver. Acute liver failure is a relatively rare hepatic manifestation of WD which may require urgent liver transplantation if medical treatment fails. We report here the case of a young woman who presented with classic acute Wilsonian hepatitis complicated by liver and renal failure and a severe hemolysis related to massive nonceruloplasmin bound copper accumulation requiring repeated blood transfusions. The early initiation of a combined treatment including conventional chelation therapy and repeated MARS dialysis sessions allowed a rapid control of hemolysis, a progressive decrease of free copper overload, and clinical recompensation without liver transplantation.
Rare Histological Variants of Liver Cancer and Their Management: A Single-Institution Experience
Primary liver malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma, are a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are several histologically and biologically distinct subtypes of liver cancer that have previously been reported. However, literature regarding the nonsurgical management of these patients upon disease recurrence remains limited. These variants include combined HCC-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC), Epstein–Barr virus- (EBV-) associated carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and clear cell or thyroid-like variants of HCC. Here, we aim to highlight the pathologic features, clinical course, and outcomes of five patients with these unusual hepatic tumors and explain the rationale behind the choice of their systemic therapies upon disease recurrence. All patients underwent surgical resection as the standard of care for localized disease, and upon relapse, they were treated with either chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, or active surveillance based on the clinical context and tumor histology. These rare variants are important to recognize as they have prognostic and therapeutic implications, and there are currently insufficient data in the literature to guide further therapy.
Strenuous Exercise-Induced Tremendously Elevated Transaminases Levels in a Healthy Adult: A Diagnostic Dilemma
The liver function test (LFT) is a commonly performed test in clinical practice in order to assess well-being of the liver; however, derangement in liver enzymes, however, may not necessarily imply an underlying liver pathology. The standard liver function test measures alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin levels (total, direct, and indirect), proteins (total protein and albumin), and PT-INR (prothrombin time and international normalized ratio). In addition to common causes, liver enzyme levels can also be elevated due to extrahepatic causes, such as muscular injury can elevate transaminases levels. Here in, we present a case of an asymptomatic healthy male who was doing vigorous exercise and presented with reports of elevated transaminase levels. During evaluation of the case, most of his reports came to be within normal range. Additionally, when reevaluated after discontinuation of vigorous exercise, 3 weeks later and then a month later, his liver enzyme levels were observed to be within normal range. Hence, we suspect that muscle damage-induced transaminitis might not have been considered in the differential diagnosis during the evaluation of a patient with raised transaminases levels and also suggest that it should be kept as a differential in the given scenario.