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Case Reports in Hepatology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 258791, 3 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/258791
Case Report

Hepatitis B Reactivation in a HBsAg-Negative, HBcAb-Positive Patient Receiving Fludarabine for the Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia

1Department of Infectious Diseases, San Paolo Hospital, Via Genova 20, 17100 Savona, Italy
2Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, San Paolo Hospital, 17100 Savona, Italy

Received 18 April 2011; Accepted 17 May 2011

Academic Editors: M. Deutsch and J. Genesca

Copyright © 2011 Federica Toscanini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is an increasingly recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing chemotherapy. In haematology, the risk of reactivation of B hepatitis among HBsAg-positive patients has been documented; therefore, use of lamivudine prophylaxis is recommended before starting chemotherapy. Differently, for HBsAg-negative patients with markers of previous HBV infection (i.e., presence of isolated anti-HBc positivity) (anticore patients) management strategies are not univocal. We describe a rare case of HBV reactivation in an anticore patient after fludarabine therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. The patient fully recovered after a 6-month course of lamivudine with persistent HBV-DNA clearance and loss of HBsAg. The most important feature of this case is that fludarabine alone infrequently determines HBV reactivation, especially in anticore patients. Therefore, we suggest that patients candidates to receive fludarabine therapy should be considered for lamivudine prophylaxis, not only if HBsAg-positive, but even if anticore-positive only.