The Terrible Triad of Checkpoint Inhibition: A Case Report of Myasthenia Gravis, Myocarditis, and Myositis Induced by Cemiplimab in a Patient with Metastatic Cutaneous Squamous Cell CarcinomaRead the full article
Case Reports in Immunology publishes case reports and case series related to allergies, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, cancer immunology and transplantation immunology.
Case Reports in Immunology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Injection Site Erythema in a Patient on Therapeutic Anticoagulation with Low Molecular Weight Heparin after Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement: A Rare Presentation of Heparin- and Protamine-Induced Thrombocytopenia
Previous exposition to heparin and protamine in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative therapeutic anticoagulation with LMWH may lead to the development of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and/or protamine-induced thrombocytopenia (PIT). This case deals with a rare clinical presentation of circulating IgG antibodies against heparin/platelet factor 4 complexes and heparin/protamine complexes after cardiac surgery. Ensuing purpura and skin necrosis (blisters) at the injection sites of LMWH and clinical symptoms improved rapidly after replacement of LMWH by an alternative anticoagulant. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the several different clinical manifestations of heparin- and/or protamine-induced thrombocytopenia and shows a possible course of treatment and recovery.
A First Case Report of DiGeorge Syndrome from Ethiopia Highlights Challenges in Identifying and Treating Children with Primary T-Cell Deficiencies in Low Resource Settings
Background. Cellular primary immunodeficiencies are rarely reported from Africa. DiGeorge syndrome is a commonly recognized form of a congenital T-cell deficiency. The disorder is characterized by hypoplastic or aplastic thymus, hypocalcemia, recurrent infections, and other associated congenital defects. Case Report. We report an eleven-month-old infant presenting with recurrent chest and diarrheal infections, failure to thrive, lymphopenia, hypocalcemia, and hypoplastic thymus on imaging. A diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome was confirmed after determining very low CD3 and CD4 levels. Conclusions. We describe the first case report of an Ethiopian child with a congenital T-cell immunodeficiency. We have outlined essentials for diagnosis and management of cellular primary immunodeficiency disorders in low resource settings.
Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disease Treated by Retransplantation
Epstein–Barr virus- (EBV-) induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The main risk factor is anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). Patients who fail first-line treatment with rituximab have a poor prognosis. Though adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T cells is a potentially effective option, it is not readily available. In this case report, the patient developed PTLD following transplantation for aplastic anemia using ATG as part of the conditioning. He failed rituximab treatment and developed graft failure. We were aware that the stem cell donor had a recent EBV infection prior to transplantation, whereas the patient most likely was EBV negative before transplant. We describe our strategy to meet the patient’s urgent need for EBV-specific T cells, as well as new hematopoietic stem cells. The same donor was used for a second transplant, using peripheral blood stem cells. The conditioning used was thiotepa/busulfan/fludarabin with a single dose of cyclophosphamide after transplant as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The EBV DNA levels fell when conditioning was started, and have been undetectable since day +15 and remained so till 18 months after transplantation. The patient is doing well. This case reports successful use of cyclophosphamide after transplantation as GVHD prophylaxis, preserving virus-specific immunity.
Cerebellar Ataxia Followed by Stiff Person Syndrome in a Patient with Anti-GAD Antibodies
Anti-GAD antibody syndrome is a result of the production of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the main enzyme responsible for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several neurological manifestations including cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome have been reported in association with anti-GAD antibodies. In this paper, we present a case of a young woman with anti-GAD antibodies who initially presented with cerebellar ataxia followed by stiff person syndrome three and a half years later. Having both cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome is a rare occurrence in anti-GAD antibody syndrome. We emphasise the importance of long-term follow-up of patients with anti-GAD antibody syndrome, as delayed neurological manifestations can occur.
Fatal Hypogammaglobulinemia 3 Years after Rituximab in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenia: An Underlying Genetic Predisposition?
We report the case of a young woman who developed, 3 years after stopping Rituximab (RTX) prescribed for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), a severe immunodeficiency leading to fatal pulmonary Epstein–Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Genetic analysis led us to identify four missense mutations known to affect immune-deficiency–associated genes (FAS-ligand (FASL) gene (p.G167R); perforin-1 (PRF1 (p.R55C) gene; the Bloom syndrome RecQ-Like helicase (BLM) gene and the Moesin (MSN) (p.A122T) gene). The heterozygous mutation in the FASL gene, not present in the Genome Aggregation Database or ClinVar database, could suggest atypical Autoimmune LymphoProliferative Syndrome and its role in this patient’s immunodepression is discussed. This observation strengthens the role of FASL gene mutation in severe clinical phenotypes of primary immune deficiency and raises new questions about the genetic background of ITP occurring in young people in a context of immunodeficiency.
Primary Immunodeficiency with Severe Multi-Organ Immune Dysregulation
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1, also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with multi-organ involvement. Besides for being predisposed to severe life-threatening infections, patients with APECED are also prone to organ impairment secondary to severe autoimmunity. As this is an autosomal recessive disorder, a biallelic mutation in the AIRE gene is responsible for APECED. The author presents a case of APECED with a single AIRE mutation. Whole exome sequencing identified a mutation in the BTNL2 gene that the author suggests may have contributed to the patient’s presentation.