A First Case Report of DiGeorge Syndrome from Ethiopia Highlights Challenges in Identifying and Treating Children with Primary T-Cell Deficiencies in Low Resource SettingsRead the full article
Case Reports in Immunology publishes case reports and case series related to allergies, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, cancer immunology and transplantation immunology.
Case Reports in Immunology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Abstracting and Indexing
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Posttransplantation Lymphoproliferative Disease Treated by Retransplantation
Epstein–Barr virus- (EBV-) induced posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is a life-threatening complication following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The main risk factor is anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). Patients who fail first-line treatment with rituximab have a poor prognosis. Though adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T cells is a potentially effective option, it is not readily available. In this case report, the patient developed PTLD following transplantation for aplastic anemia using ATG as part of the conditioning. He failed rituximab treatment and developed graft failure. We were aware that the stem cell donor had a recent EBV infection prior to transplantation, whereas the patient most likely was EBV negative before transplant. We describe our strategy to meet the patient’s urgent need for EBV-specific T cells, as well as new hematopoietic stem cells. The same donor was used for a second transplant, using peripheral blood stem cells. The conditioning used was thiotepa/busulfan/fludarabin with a single dose of cyclophosphamide after transplant as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The EBV DNA levels fell when conditioning was started, and have been undetectable since day +15 and remained so till 18 months after transplantation. The patient is doing well. This case reports successful use of cyclophosphamide after transplantation as GVHD prophylaxis, preserving virus-specific immunity.
Cerebellar Ataxia Followed by Stiff Person Syndrome in a Patient with Anti-GAD Antibodies
Anti-GAD antibody syndrome is a result of the production of antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the main enzyme responsible for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several neurological manifestations including cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome have been reported in association with anti-GAD antibodies. In this paper, we present a case of a young woman with anti-GAD antibodies who initially presented with cerebellar ataxia followed by stiff person syndrome three and a half years later. Having both cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome is a rare occurrence in anti-GAD antibody syndrome. We emphasise the importance of long-term follow-up of patients with anti-GAD antibody syndrome, as delayed neurological manifestations can occur.
Fatal Hypogammaglobulinemia 3 Years after Rituximab in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenia: An Underlying Genetic Predisposition?
We report the case of a young woman who developed, 3 years after stopping Rituximab (RTX) prescribed for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), a severe immunodeficiency leading to fatal pulmonary Epstein–Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Genetic analysis led us to identify four missense mutations known to affect immune-deficiency–associated genes (FAS-ligand (FASL) gene (p.G167R); perforin-1 (PRF1 (p.R55C) gene; the Bloom syndrome RecQ-Like helicase (BLM) gene and the Moesin (MSN) (p.A122T) gene). The heterozygous mutation in the FASL gene, not present in the Genome Aggregation Database or ClinVar database, could suggest atypical Autoimmune LymphoProliferative Syndrome and its role in this patient’s immunodepression is discussed. This observation strengthens the role of FASL gene mutation in severe clinical phenotypes of primary immune deficiency and raises new questions about the genetic background of ITP occurring in young people in a context of immunodeficiency.
Primary Immunodeficiency with Severe Multi-Organ Immune Dysregulation
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1, also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with multi-organ involvement. Besides for being predisposed to severe life-threatening infections, patients with APECED are also prone to organ impairment secondary to severe autoimmunity. As this is an autosomal recessive disorder, a biallelic mutation in the AIRE gene is responsible for APECED. The author presents a case of APECED with a single AIRE mutation. Whole exome sequencing identified a mutation in the BTNL2 gene that the author suggests may have contributed to the patient’s presentation.
Sirolimus for the Treatment of Airway Obstruction due to Indolent T-Lymphoblastic Proliferation
Introduction. Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP) is a rare nonmalignant entity that presents as a proliferation of T-lymphoblasts. We report a first such case with a recurrent laryngeal obstruction presentation that was successfully controlled with Sirolimus. Case presentation. This is the case of a 29-year-old female who presented with a recurrent significant lymphoid hyperplasia in the adenoid and tongue base region as well as a right cervical lymph node. After repeated adenoidectomies and tonsillectomies, and based on pathological and clinical findings she was diagnosed with iT-LBP. Trials of radiotherapy and immunotherapy with cyclosporine and rituximab all failed to control the progression of the disease. Sirolimus was finally able to restrict the growth and improve her symptoms. Conclusion. While It-LBP does not usually require treatment, it is important to report cases in which treatment was crucial for the survival of the patient, and the effective role of Sirolimus in doing so, without any major adverse effects.
Evidence that a STAT3 Mutation Causing Hyper IgE Syndrome Leads to Repression of Transcriptional Activity
We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a mild form of Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) associated with a loss-of-function mutation in STAT3. Within the first years of life she developed multiple, Staphylococcus aureus associated abscesses in the neck and face requiring frequent incision and drainage. Respiratory tract infections were not a feature of the clinical phenotype and a high resolution thoracic CT scan was unremarkable. Retained dentition was noted but fungal nail disease and recurrent thrush were absent. The total IgE was 970 IU/L, Lymphocyte counts and immunoglobulin levels were normal (IgG borderline 18.5 gr/L). There was suboptimal response to test immunisation with Pneumovax II vaccine. Th17 cell phenotyping revealed low levels of IL-17 expressing cells (0.3% of total CD4 T Cells numbers). Genetic analysis identified a missense mutation, N567D, in a conserved region of the linker domain of STAT3. Functional studies in HEK293 cells reveal that this mutation potently inhibits STAT3 activity when compared to the wildtype protein. This is consistent with other reported mutations in STAT3 associated with HIES. However, surprisingly, the magnitude of inhibition was similar to another STAT3 mutation (V637M) which causes a much more severe form of the disease.