Fatal Hypogammaglobulinemia 3 Years after Rituximab in a Patient with Immune Thrombocytopenia: An Underlying Genetic Predisposition?Read the full article
Case Reports in Immunology publishes case reports and case series related to allergies, immunodeficiencies, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, cancer immunology and transplantation immunology.
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Primary Immunodeficiency with Severe Multi-Organ Immune Dysregulation
Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 1, also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), is a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder with multi-organ involvement. Besides for being predisposed to severe life-threatening infections, patients with APECED are also prone to organ impairment secondary to severe autoimmunity. As this is an autosomal recessive disorder, a biallelic mutation in the AIRE gene is responsible for APECED. The author presents a case of APECED with a single AIRE mutation. Whole exome sequencing identified a mutation in the BTNL2 gene that the author suggests may have contributed to the patient’s presentation.
Sirolimus for the Treatment of Airway Obstruction due to Indolent T-Lymphoblastic Proliferation
Introduction. Indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP) is a rare nonmalignant entity that presents as a proliferation of T-lymphoblasts. We report a first such case with a recurrent laryngeal obstruction presentation that was successfully controlled with Sirolimus. Case presentation. This is the case of a 29-year-old female who presented with a recurrent significant lymphoid hyperplasia in the adenoid and tongue base region as well as a right cervical lymph node. After repeated adenoidectomies and tonsillectomies, and based on pathological and clinical findings she was diagnosed with iT-LBP. Trials of radiotherapy and immunotherapy with cyclosporine and rituximab all failed to control the progression of the disease. Sirolimus was finally able to restrict the growth and improve her symptoms. Conclusion. While It-LBP does not usually require treatment, it is important to report cases in which treatment was crucial for the survival of the patient, and the effective role of Sirolimus in doing so, without any major adverse effects.
Evidence that a STAT3 Mutation Causing Hyper IgE Syndrome Leads to Repression of Transcriptional Activity
We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a mild form of Autosomal Dominant Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) associated with a loss-of-function mutation in STAT3. Within the first years of life she developed multiple, Staphylococcus aureus associated abscesses in the neck and face requiring frequent incision and drainage. Respiratory tract infections were not a feature of the clinical phenotype and a high resolution thoracic CT scan was unremarkable. Retained dentition was noted but fungal nail disease and recurrent thrush were absent. The total IgE was 970 IU/L, Lymphocyte counts and immunoglobulin levels were normal (IgG borderline 18.5 gr/L). There was suboptimal response to test immunisation with Pneumovax II vaccine. Th17 cell phenotyping revealed low levels of IL-17 expressing cells (0.3% of total CD4 T Cells numbers). Genetic analysis identified a missense mutation, N567D, in a conserved region of the linker domain of STAT3. Functional studies in HEK293 cells reveal that this mutation potently inhibits STAT3 activity when compared to the wildtype protein. This is consistent with other reported mutations in STAT3 associated with HIES. However, surprisingly, the magnitude of inhibition was similar to another STAT3 mutation (V637M) which causes a much more severe form of the disease.
Deficiency of Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist: A Case with Late Onset Severe Inflammatory Arthritis, Nail Psoriasis with Onychomycosis and Well Responsive to Adalimumab Therapy
DIRA (deficiency of the IL-1Ra) is a rare condition that usually presents in the neonatal period. Patients with DIRA present with systemic inflammation, respiratory distress, joint swelling, pustular rash, multifocal osteomyelitis, and periostitis. Previously, we reported a patient with a novel mutation in IL1RN with a healthy neonatal period, a late-onset of pustular dermatosis, inflammatory arthritis, and excellent response to canakinumab treatment. Herein, we are presenting a new case of late-onset DIRA syndrome, carrying a different mutation and showing different clinical findings. This patient is the first one in the literature with the inflammatory arthritis, nail psoriasis, and onychomycosis and with her remarkable response to monoclonal antibodies. The case responded well and fully recovered after treatment with adalimumab, but not with canakinumab. The DIRA disease can lead to death from multiple organ failures and if recognized early, the treatment with replacement of the deficient protein with biologic agents induces rapid and complete remission. Therefore, clinical symptoms should be learned exactly by the pediatricians, pediatric rheumatologists, and immunologists; and molecular analysis targeting this defect must be performed as early as possible.
Partial and Transient Clinical Response to Omalizumab in IL-21-Induced Low STAT3-Phosphorylation on Hyper-IgE Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency characterized by elevated levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE), eczematous dermatitis, cold abscesses, and recurrent infections of the lung and skin caused by Staphylococcus aureus. The dominant form is characterized by nonimmunologic features including skeletal, connective tissue, and pulmonary abnormalities in addition to recurrent infections and eczema. Omalizumab is a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody against IgE. Several studies reported clinical improvement with omalizumab in patients with severe atopic eczema with high serum IgE level. We present the case of a 37-year-old male with HIES and cutaneous manifestations, treated with humanized recombinant monoclonal antibodies efalizumab and omalizumab. After therapy for 4 years, we observed diminished eczema and serum IgE levels.
IgG4-Related Sclerosing Disease Causing Spinal Cord Compression: The First Reported Case in Literature
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is known for forming soft tissue mass lesions that may have compressive effects. It is an extremely rare disease that most frequently affects the pancreas causing autoimmune pancreatitis. It can also affect the gallbladder, salivary glands, and lacrimal glands causing respective organ-specific complications. In our report, we describe an IgG4-RD case that affected the spinal cord. A 60-year-old female presented with cervical spinal cord compression caused by IgG4-RD leading to several neurological deficits. Pathological examination of the excisional biopsy of the mass revealed dense lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration and stromal fibrosis with IgG4 and plasma cells. The patient showed a dramatic response to the administration of systemic steroids with almost resolution of her neurological symptoms. This case highlights the first case in literature for IgG4-RD of the extradural tissue causing spinal compression. Hereby, we also demonstrate the dramatic response of IgG4-RD to the administration of systemic steroids as the patient had no recurrence after 5 years of close follow-up, the longest reported period of follow-up reported in the literature to date.