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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2013, Article ID 165409, 7 pages
Case Report

Isolated Laryngeal Leishmaniasis in Immunocompetent Patients: An Underdiagnosed Disease

1Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties, A.O.U. Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy
2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Garibaldi Nesima Hospital, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
3Department G.F. Ingrassia, Section of Anatomic Pathology, University of Catania, 95100 Catania, Italy
4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19115, USA

Received 20 February 2013; Accepted 27 March 2013

Academic Editors: M. Caira, R. Colodner, and M. Ghate

Copyright © 2013 Salvatore Cocuzza et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We describe a case of isolated primary laryngeal leishmaniasis in an immunocompetent Italian patient with a previous medical history negative for visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, presenting with hoarseness. We also summarize the epidemiological, clinical, and diagnostic features and the therapeutic management of other cases of laryngeal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent subjects, described in the literature. Considering the insidious and nonspecific clinical presentation, the increasing number of different forms of mild or underestimated immunosuppressive conditions, and the number of people travelling in endemic zones, along with the ability of Leishmania amastigotes to survive for a long period in the body, we believe it is important for pathologists and clinicians to be aware of this unusual form of leishmaniasis in order to avoid delayed recognition and treatment. The rarity of the presentation and the lack of guidelines on mucosal leishmaniasis may contribute to the potential undiagnosed cases or delayed diagnosis, the possible relapses, as well as the correct pharmacological and/or surgical therapeutic approach.