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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2014, Article ID 293761, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/293761
Case Report

Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis/HIV Coinfection Presented as a Diffuse Desquamative Rash

1Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), 20550-110 Urca, RJ, Brazil
2Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 20550-110 Urca, RJ, Brazil
3Porto University, 4099-002 Porto, Portugal

Received 27 June 2014; Accepted 20 November 2014; Published 8 December 2014

Academic Editor: Pere Domingo

Copyright © 2014 Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that is endemic in tropical areas and in the Mediterranean. This condition spreads to 98 countries in four continents, surpassing 12 million infected individuals, with 350 million people at risk of infection. This disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical syndromes, caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, with various animal reservoirs, such as rodents, dogs, wolves, foxes, and even humans. Transmission occurs through a vector, a sandfly of the genus Lutzomyia. There are three main clinical forms of leishmaniasis: visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The wide spectrum of nonvisceral forms includes: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis, a papular lesion that progresses to ulceration with granular base and a large framed board; diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis; mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, which can cause disfiguring and mutilating injuries of the nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx. Leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection is considered an emerging problem in several countries, including Brazil, where, despite the growing number of cases, a problem of late diagnosis occurs. Clinically, the cases of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection may demonstrate unusual aspects, such as extensive and destructive lesions. This study aims to report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis/HIV coinfection with atypical presentation of diffuse desquamative eruption and nasopharyngeal involvement.