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Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 2421540, 3 pages
Case Report

A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Distrital de Santarém, Santarém, Portugal

Received 28 July 2016; Revised 7 November 2016; Accepted 22 November 2016

Academic Editor: Xavier Vallès

Copyright © 2016 Raquel Sousa Almeida et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.