Case Report

Immunotherapy Responsive Autoimmune Subacute Encephalitis: A Report of Two Cases

Table 1

Comparison of reported cases of subacute encephalitis associated with voltagegated potassium channel antibody (VGKCAb) and antithyroperoxidase (TPO).

Reference no./age/sexSeizure typeInitial S. sodium (meq/l)Serum VGKC Ab level (nmol/L)Other antibodiesMRI Ψ EEG Φ Response to immune therapy Outcome Follow up MRI

Case 1 /63/FCPS, GTCS1286.21TPO, 142MTS ( R > L )F,T,EGood (1, 2, 3)M, SR (right), N
Case 2 /61/FFrontal lobe seizure (CPS), GTCS1210.13TPO, 474MTS, AD, BGood (1, 3)MR
[7]/49/FProbable CPS1271.42TPO, 45MTSD, TGood (1)MR
[7]/65/MCPS GTC1203.30TPO, 118; GAD65, 0.09MTSDGood (1)MR
[5]/36/FGTCSNA1.038TPONNA x Spontaneous resolutionGoodNB

Ψ MTS = Bilateral mesial temporal high signal, A = bilateral frontotemporal atrophy, N = Normal.
Φ D = Diffuse slowing, E = bitemporal epileptiform discharges, B = Frontal beta activity, T = bitemporal slowing, F = bifrontal slowing.
1 = Intravenous steroids, 2 = Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), 3 = Plasma exchange (PLEX), 4 = Azathioprine, 5 = Rituximab, 6 = Mycophenolate mofetil.
M = Memory deficits, B = Behavioral changes, S = Seizures.
H = Hippocampal atrophy, R = Resolution of high signals, NB = Normal at baseline, N = new lesion in the left medial temporal lobe.
x NA = Data not available.