Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2011, Article ID 351267, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/351267
Case Report

Repetitive Complete Molar Pregnancy in a 54-Year-Old Patient in a Time Distance of Eighteen Years from the First Incident: Case Report and Mini Review

Department of Gynecology, General Hospital of Athens “Laiko”, Ag. Thoma 17, Goudi, 15232 Athens, Greece

Received 15 September 2011; Revised 5 October 2011; Accepted 5 October 2011

Academic Editor: Raoul Orvieto

Copyright © 2011 Polychronis Oikonomidis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. W. Callen, Ed., Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 2008.
  2. R. Berkowitz, Gestational Trophoblastic Disease, International Society for the Study of the Trophoblastic Diseases, New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 2003.
  3. A. Altieri, S. Franceschi, J. Ferlay, J. Smith, and C. La Vecchia, “Epidemiology and aetiology of gestational trophoblastic diseases,” Lancet Oncology, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 670–678, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. S. Berkowitz, Z. S. Tuncer, M. R. Bernstein, and D. P. Goldstein, “Management of gestational trophoblastic diseases: subsequent pregnancy experience,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 678–685, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. C. Lorigan, S. Sharma, N. Bright, R. E. Coleman, and B. W. Hancock, “Characteristics of women with recurrent molar pregnancies,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 78, no. 3 I, pp. 288–292, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. D. Bagshawe, J. Dent, and J. Webb, “Hydatidiform mole in England and Wales 1973–83,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8508, pp. 673–677, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. D. Altman, B. Bentley, S. Murray, and J. R. Bentley, “Maternal age-related rates of gestational trophoblastic disease,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 244–250, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. N. Tsukamoto, T. Iwasaka, Y. Kashimura, H. Uchino, M. Kashimura, and T. Matsuyama, “Gestational trophoblastic disease in women aged 50 or more,” Gynecologic Oncology, vol. 20, pp. 53–61, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  9. R. S. Berkowitz, S. S. Im, M. R. Bernstein, and D. P. Goldstein, “Gestational trophoblastic disease. Subsequent pregnancy outcome, including repeat molar pregnancy,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. K. Sand, J. R. Lurain, and J. I. Brewer, “Repeat gestational trophoblastic disease,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 140–144, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. G. Olsen, A. A. Barnes, and J. A. King, “Elevated hCG outside of pregnancy—diagnostic considerations and laboratory evaluation,” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 669–674, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. L. C. Bandy, D. L. Clarke-Pearson, and C. B. Hammond, “Malignant potential of gestational trophoblastic disease at the extreme ages of reproductive life,” Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 395–399, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. R. Palmer, “Advances in the epidemiology of gestational trophoblastic disease,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 155–162, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Koc, O. Ozdegirmenci, G. Tulunay, N. Ozgul, M. F. Kose, and D. Bulbul, “Recurrent partial hydatidiform mole: a report of a patient with three consecutive molar pregnancies,” International Journal of Gynecological Cancer, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 940–943, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. W. Sahraoui, S. Hajji, N. Haouas et al., “Recurrent hydatidiform mole. Case report of 9 successive molar pregnancies,” Tunisie Medicale, vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 506–508, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. G. Wolf and J. M. Lage, “Genetic analysis of gestational trophoblastic disease: a review,” Seminars in Oncology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 113–120, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. D. Lawler, R. A. Fisher, and J. Dent, “A prospective genetic study of complete and partial hydatidiform moles,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 1270–1277, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. J. van der Smagt, E. Scheenjes, J. A. M. Kremer, F. A. M. Hennekam, and R. A. Fisher, “Heterogeneity in the origin of recurrent complete hydatidiform moles: not all women with multiple molar pregnancies have biparental moles,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 725–728, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. N. Helwani, M. Seoud, L. Zahed, G. Zaatari, A. Khalil, and R. Slim, “A familial case of recurrent hydatidiform molar pregnancies with biparental genomic contribution,” Human Genetics, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 112–115, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. D. Lawler, R. A. Fisher, and V. J. Pickthall, “Genetic studies on hydatidiform moles. I. The origin of partial moles,” Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 309–320, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. A. Parry, C. V. Logan, B. E. Hayward et al., “Mutations causing familial biparental hydatidiform mole implicate c6orf221 as a possible regulator of genomic imprinting in the human oocyte,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 451–458, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. C. M. Wang, P. H. Dixon, S. Decordova et al., “Identification of 13 novel NLRP7 mutations in 20 families with recurrent hydatidiform mole; missense mutations cluster in the leucine-rich region,” Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 46, no. 8, pp. 569–575, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Deveault, J. H. Qian, W. Chebaro et al., “NLRP7 mutations in women with diploid androgenetic and triploid moles: a proposed mechanism for mole formation,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 888–897, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. X. Tian, G. Pascal, and P. Monget, “Evolution and functional divergence of NLRP genes in mammalian reproductive systems,” BMC Evolutionary Biology, vol. 9, no. 1, article 202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. N. J. Sebire, R. A. Fisher, M. Foskett, H. Rees, M. J. Seckl, and E. S. Newlands, “Risk of recurrent hydatidiform mole and subsequent pregnancy outcome following complete or partial hydatidiform molar pregnancy,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Di Cintio, F. Parazzini, C. Rosa, L. Chatenoud, and G. Benzi, “The epidemiology of gestational trophoblastic disease,” General and Diagnostic Pathology, vol. 143, no. 2-3, pp. 103–108, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus