Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 3742171, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/3742171
Case Report

Isolated Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Recurrent Syncope

1Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37604, USA
2Division of Cardiology, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37604, USA

Received 21 September 2016; Revised 6 December 2016; Accepted 7 December 2016

Academic Editor: Grigrios Korosoglou

Copyright © 2016 Sukhdeep Bhogal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Bartman and J. Hove, “Mechanics and function in heart morphogenesis,” Developmental Dynamics, vol. 233, no. 2, pp. 373–381, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Li, D. Zhou, M. M. Lu, and E. E. Morrisey, “Advanced cardiac morphogenesis does not require heart tube fusion,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5690, pp. 1619–1622, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. A. Taber, “Mechanical aspects of cardiac development,” Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, vol. 69, no. 2-3, pp. 237–255, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. M. Icardo and A. Fernandez-Terán, “Morphologic study of ventricular trabeculation in the embryonic chick heart.,” Acta Anatomica, vol. 130, no. 3, pp. 264–274, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. O. C. Jaffee, “Bloodstreams and the formation of the interatrial septum in the anuran heart,” The Anatomical Record, vol. 147, pp. 355–357, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  6. B. C. Weiford, V. D. Subbarao, and K. M. Mulhern, “Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium,” Circulation, vol. 109, no. 24, pp. 2965–2971, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. B. Bleyl, B. R. Mumford, M.-C. Brown-Harrison et al., “Xq28-linked noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium: prenatal diagnosis and pathologic analysis of affected individuals,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 257–265, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Zhang, H. Chen, X. Qu, C.-P. Chang, and W. Shou, “Molecular mechanism of ventricular trabeculation/compaction and the pathogenesis of the left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC),” American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 144–156, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. C. Stöllberger, J. Finsterer, and G. Blazek, “Left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction and association with additional cardiac abnormalities and neuromuscular disorders,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 90, no. 8, pp. 899–902, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. K. Chin, J. K. Perloff, R. G. Williams, K. Jue, and R. Mohrmann, “Isolated noncompaction of left ventricular myocardium. A study of eight cases,” Circulation, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 507–513, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Ritter, E. Oechslin, G. Sütsch, C. Attenhofer, J. Schneider, and R. Jenni, “Isolated noncompaction of the myocardium in adults,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 26–31, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Ichida, Y. Hamamichi, T. Miyawaki et al., “Clinical features of isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium: long-term clinical course, hemodynamic properties, and genetic background,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 233–240, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. L. Bhatia, A. J. Tajik, S. Wilansky, D. E. Steidley, and F. Mookadam, “Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium in adults: a systematic overview,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 771–778, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Jenni, E. Oechslin, J. Schneider, C. Attenhofer Jost, and P. A. Kaufmann, “Echocardiographic and pathoanatomical characteristics of isolated left ventricular non-compaction: a step towards classification as a distinct cardiomyopathy,” Heart, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 666–671, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. K. Kohli, A. A. Pantazis, J. S. Shah et al., “Diagnosis of left-ventricular non-compaction in patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction: time for a reappraisal of diagnostic criteria?” European Heart Journal, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 89–95, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Stöllberger, B. Gerecke, J. Finsterer, and R. Engberding, “Refinement of echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular noncompaction,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 463–467, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. Gebhard, B. E. Stähli, M. Greutmann, P. Biaggi, R. Jenni, and F. C. Tanner, “Reduced left ventricular compacta thickness: a novel echocardiographic criterion for non-compaction cardiomyopathy,” Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 1050–1057, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Zuccarino, I. Vollmer, G. Sanchez, M. Navallas, F. Pugliese, and A. Gayete, “Left ventricular noncompaction: imaging findings and diagnostic criteria,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 204, no. 5, pp. W519–W530, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. Oechslin and R. Jenni, “Left ventricular non-compaction revisited: a distinct phenotype with genetic heterogeneity?” European Heart Journal, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1446–1456, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Soler, E. Rodríguez, L. Monserrat, and N. Alvarez, “MRI of subendocardial perfusion deficits in isolated left ventricular noncompaction,” Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 373–375, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Floria, G. Tinica, and M. Grecu, “Left ventricular non-compaction—challenges and controversie,” Mædica, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 282–288, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Hussein, A. Karimianpour, P. Collier, and R. A. Krasuski, “Isolated noncompaction of the left ventricle in adults,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 578–585, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. V. Rosa, V. M. Salemi, L. M. Alexandre, and C. Mady, “Noncompaction cardiomyopathy: a current view,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. e13–e19, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Aragona, L. P. Badano, G. Pacileo, G. P. Pino, G. Sinagra, and E. Zachara, “Isolated left ventricular non-compaction,” Italian Heart Journal Supplement, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 649–659, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  25. S. C. Stamou, E. A. Lefrak, F. C. Athari, N. A. Burton, and P. S. Massimiano, “Heart transplantation in a patient with isolated noncompaction of the left ventricular myocardium,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1806–1808, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. N. Oechslin, C. H. A. Jost, J. R. Rojas, P. A. Kaufmann, and R. Jenni, “Long-term follow-up of 34 adults with isolated left ventricular noncompaction: a distinct cardiomyopathy with poor prognosis,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 493–500, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus