Case Reports in Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Delayed Presentation of Posttraumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia Masquerading as Recurrent Acute Asthmatic Attack Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Diaphragmatic hernia following blunt abdominal injury is extremely rare and often diagnosed late. Missed diagnosis is also common with this condition. We herein present a delayed presentation of diaphragmatic hernia following blunt abdominal injury that was initially misdiagnosed as recurrent acute asthmatic attack due to repeated presentation with episodic difficulty in breathing. A. I. El-Yakub, U. M. Bello, A. A. Sheshe, and H. U. Naaya Copyright © 2017 A. I. El-Yakub et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Chronic Cough and Pneumonia Secondary to a Foreign Body Mon, 18 Sep 2017 08:25:50 +0000 Foreign body aspiration occurs when a solid or semisolid object becomes lodged in the larynx or trachea. It can be a life-threatening emergency, especially if it is large enough to occlude the airway. However, small aspirated objects may go unnoticed until symptoms occur. Therefore, it is frequently misdiagnosed. A high level of clinical suspicion, patient’s risk factors, and thorough history and physical examination are essential in making the diagnosis. It should be considered in cases where there is unresolved chronic cough with or without associated recurrent pneumonia especially in patients with risks for aspiration. Joan Dabu, Meredith Lindner, Moh’d Azzam, Anas Al-Khateeb, Muqueet Kadri, Sharath Bellary, and Richard Miller Copyright © 2017 Joan Dabu et al. All rights reserved. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis with Incomplete Double Ureter Mon, 18 Sep 2017 08:12:51 +0000 Introduction. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a type of chronic renal inflammation that usually occurs in immunocompromised middle-aged women with chronic urinary tract infection or ureteral obstruction induced by the formation of ureteral stones. XGP with an incomplete double ureter is extremely rare. Case Presentation. A 76-year-old woman was referred to our department to undergo further examination for a left renal tumor that was detected by ultrasonography. Dynamic contrast computed tomography (CT) revealed an enhanced tumor in the upper renal parenchyma. Laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed based on a preoperative diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Histological sections showed the aggregation of foam cells; thus, XGP was diagnosed. Conclusion. We herein report a rare case of XGP in the upper pole of the kidney, which might have been associated with an incomplete double ureter. Yutaro Hayashi, Takashi Kawahara, Yusuke Hattori, Kota Shimokihara, Sohgo Tsutsumi, Daiji Takamoto, Taku Mochizuki, Jun-ichi Teranishi, Yasushi Yumura, Yasuhide Miyoshi, Masako Otani, and Hiroji Uemura Copyright © 2017 Yutaro Hayashi et al. All rights reserved. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis: Persistent Sore Throat and Dysphagia in an Elderly Smoker Male Thu, 14 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is rarely symptomatic. However, it can present with dyspnea, hoarseness, dysphagia, and stridor. An 80-year-old chronic smoker male presented with 6-month history of sore throat and progressive dysphagia. Computed tomography of the neck revealed bulky anterior bridging syndesmophytes along the anterior aspect of the cervical spine and facet effusion involving four contiguous vertebrae consistent with DISH. Dysphagia secondary to DISH was diagnosed. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. Patient’s airway became compromised requiring tracheostomy tube placement. After discussion of therapeutic options, patient agreed on a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion for nutritional support. Osteophytectomy was left to be discussed further. Ana Goico-Alburquerque, Beenish Zulfiqar, Ranae Antoine, and Mohammed Samee Copyright © 2017 Ana Goico-Alburquerque et al. All rights reserved. Extraintestinal Salmonellosis in the Immunocompromised: An Unusual Case of Pyomyositis Mon, 11 Sep 2017 09:17:40 +0000 Salmonella infection can cause a wide range of presentations, predominantly gastrointestinal but occasionally with cardiovascular or other extraintestinal manifestations. The diagnosis of extraintestinal salmonellosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and should be considered in patients with deep-seated abscesses especially if they are immunocompromised. We present a case of salmonella causing gastroenteritis complicated by an intramuscular abscess of the left leg. With prompt recognition and multidisciplinary management, the patient recovered with no serious sequela. Veeraraghavan Meyyur Aravamudan, Phang Kee Fong, Pavel Singh, Jong Sze Chin, Yang Shiyao Sam, and P. A. Tambyah Copyright © 2017 Veeraraghavan Meyyur Aravamudan et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Cystic Angiomatosis Mimicking Metastatic Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Mon, 11 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Systemic cystic angiomatosis is a rare benign disorder due to the maldeveloped vascular and lymphatic system with less than 50 cases reported in literature so far. We report here a case of systemic cystic angiomatosis (SCA) with multisystem involvement affecting the neck, thyroid, thoracic cavity, and skeletal system. The patient initially presented in her 4th decade of life with isolated lymphangioma in the neck requiring surgery. However, she experienced full-blown manifestations of SCA in her 6th decade which closely mimicked metastatic cancer. The diagnosis of SCA could only be established after multiple biopsies. The radiological and histological features of SCA with its course over 31 years in this patient have been described. Vivek Kumar, Trishala Meghal, Yanyu Helen Sun, and Yiwu Huang Copyright © 2017 Vivek Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Pancreatic Tuberculosis with Vascular Involvement and Peritoneal Dissemination in a Young Man Thu, 07 Sep 2017 06:48:14 +0000 Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is an extremely rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis even in endemic areas that masquerades as a mass or inflammation because of lack of typical clinical manifestations and radiologic features and therefore usually misdiagnosed as a pancreatic malignancy or pancreatitis. Here we present a 23-year-old young man with pancreatic tuberculosis mimicking pancreatic head carcinoma A man who suffered from upper abdominal pain and nausea for half a month was admitted to our hospital. Narrow band imaging (NBI) and gastroscopic imaging, together with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), revealed a duodenal bulb mucous prominences lesion. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) both suggested a pancreatic mass which resembled a pancreatic head tumor that had a higher risk of malignancy. The patient therefore accepted an exploratory laparotomy and pancreatoduodenectomy, Whipple operation. Biopsies of pancreas, duodenum, lymph nodes, omentum, and adipose tissues were all performed, revealing tuberculosis infection in pancreas, hepatic portal vein infiltration, and peritoneal dissemination. The patient was treated successfully after operation and recovered with standard anti-TB drugs for 6 months. Timely reporting of this rare case can help physicians improve their ability to identify several specific illnesses and diseases that share confusing signs or symptoms clinically and radiographically. Meng Zhu, Ning Zhang, Wei Tao, Zhitao Wang, and Shuixiang He Copyright © 2017 Meng Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Factors for a Successful Laparoscopic Hysterectomy in Very Large Uteri Wed, 06 Sep 2017 07:33:17 +0000 Minimally invasive hysterectomy is a standard procedure. Different approaches, as laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, and subtotal and total laparoscopic hysterectomy, have been described and evaluated by various investigations as safe and cost-effective methods. In particular, in comparison to abdominal hysterectomy, the minimally invasive methods have undoubted advantages for the patients. The main reason for a primary abdominal hysterectomy or conversion to abdominal hysterectomy during a minimal invasive approach is the uterine size. We describe our course of action in the retrospective analysis of five cases of total minimal-access hysterectomy, combining the laparoscopic subtotal hysterectomy and the vaginal extirpation of the cervix in uterine myomatosis with a uterine weight of more than 1000 grams, and discuss the factors that limit the use of laparoscopy in the treatment of big uteri. Trail Registration. The case report is registered in Research Registry under the UIN researchregistry743. Harald Krentel and Rudy Leon De Wilde Copyright © 2017 Harald Krentel and Rudy Leon De Wilde. All rights reserved. Necrotizing Fasciitis Secondary to Aeromonas Infection Presenting with Septic Shock Thu, 31 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This report describes a case of necrotizing fasciitis presenting with septic shock due to an Aeromonas infection. The patient cut his foot while mowing the lawn and then spent time in a pool with black mold. He began feeling ill and developed swelling and a quarter-sized black area on his right lower extremity. Despite being hemodynamically unstable with systolic blood pressure in the low 70s, the patient was transferred to our facility from outside hospital 100 miles away. Upon arriving to facility, the patient appeared to be septic and the infected area of skin had grown. Irrigation and debridement were performed and appropriate antibiotic therapy was given; however, the patient subsequently died on hospital day 8. On review of the literature, cases of necrotizing fasciitis due to Aeromonas infection have been treated successfully with the aforementioned therapy; however, there is high mortality associated with these infections, many times related to a delayed diagnosis. Our patient also had multiple poor prognostic factors including hepatic dysfunction and immunosuppression. Nikhil Bhatia, Manuel Castro-Borobio, John N. Greene, and Sowmya Nanjappa Copyright © 2017 Nikhil Bhatia et al. All rights reserved. Lone Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Isolated Chest Wall Malignancy Wed, 30 Aug 2017 06:45:39 +0000 Herein we describe the case of an elderly diabetic gentleman presenting with a two-week history of dyspnea and nonproductive cough, found to have a large left anterolateral chest wall mass. Further characterization through computed tomography (CT) of the chest revealed a soft tissue mass in the left anterior lower hemithorax found to be hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The liver, spleen, and pancreas were unremarkable. Diagnostic labs were unremarkable. The patient had no history of hepatitis, alcohol abuse, or illicit substance use. Pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining of the chest mass biopsy were consistent with metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The patient opted to pursue no further medical intervention and expired two weeks later. To the authors’ knowledge, this is one of very few descriptions of isolated hepatocellular carcinoma found in the absence of a primary liver lesion and classical risk factors for hepatocarcinogenesis. This case highlights that HCC may present independently of liver lesions seen on imaging in a patient without clear signs or symptoms of liver. HCC should be considered in cases of isolated tumors with unclear primaries as ectopic carcinogenesis and occult primary malignancy are possibilities. Joseph Allencherril, Sebastian Bruera, Ronan Allencherril, and Richard J. Hamill Copyright © 2017 Joseph Allencherril et al. All rights reserved. Thyrotoxicosis and Choledocholithiasis Masquerading as Thyroid Storm Wed, 23 Aug 2017 06:54:18 +0000 A 26-year-old female, thirteen months postpartum, presented to the emergency department for four weeks of epigastric abdominal pain, pruritus, new onset jaundice, and 11.3 kgs (25 lbs) unintentional weight loss. On examination, she was afebrile, tachycardic, alert, and oriented and had jaundice with scleral icterus. Labs were significant for undetectable TSH, FT4 that was too high to measure, and elevated total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound revealed cholelithiasis without biliary ductal dilation. Treatment for presumed thyroid storm was initiated. Further work-up with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed an obstructing cholelith within the distal common bile duct. With the presence of choledocholithiasis explaining the jaundice and abdominal pain, plus the absence of CNS alterations, the diagnosis of thyroid storm was revised to thyrotoxicosis complicated by choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) with sphincterotomy was performed to alleviate the biliary obstruction, with prompt symptomatic improvement. Thyroid storm is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical examination, and abnormal thyroid function tests do not correlate with disease severity. Knowledge of the many manifestations of thyroid storm will facilitate a quick and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Christian L. Horn and Patricia A. Short Copyright © 2017 Christian L. Horn and Patricia A. Short. All rights reserved. Large Subcapsular Splenic Hematoma with a Large Pancreatic Pseudocyst Was Successfully Treated with Splenic Arterial Embolization and Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Pancreatic Pseudocyst Tue, 22 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Subcapsular splenic hematoma is a rare complication of pancreatitis. The management for subcapsular splenic hematoma remains controversial. We herein report a case of a large subcapsular splenic hematoma with a large pancreatic pseudocyst, which was successfully treated with splenic arterial embolization and ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst, for the first time. A 44-year-old male suffered from recurrent abdominal pain for more than two years. He had previous 3 episodes of pancreatitis. A subcapsular splenic hematoma (16.0 × 16.0 × 7.6 cm) with pancreatic pseudocyst (13.5 × 10.0 × 8.0 cm) was shown on abdominal computed tomography (CT). He underwent splenic arterial embolization to decrease the blood supply of the spleen and then ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the large pancreatic pseudocyst. After 2 weeks, the repeated CT-Abdomen showed the disappearance of pancreatic pseudocyst and multiple areas of infarction on the spleen, while the splenic subcapsular hematoma had also significantly reduced. The patient was discharged after almost a month of his hospital admission with the drainage tube attached, and about 2 weeks later the drainage tube was removed upon CT scan confirmation of decrease in the volume of the subcapsular hematoma. Patient had no abdominal symptoms at the 1.5-year follow-up. Song Zhang, Fei Liu, Heena Buch, Guifang Xu, and Lei Wang Copyright © 2017 Song Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Cavitary Lesion of the Lung Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an Immunocompetent Patient Mon, 21 Aug 2017 07:26:09 +0000 Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that most commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections, but it can also cause pneumonia, referred to as “walking pneumonia.” Although cavitary lesions are present in a wide variety of infectious and noninfectious processes, those attributable to M. pneumoniae are extremely uncommon; thus, to date, epidemiological studies are lacking. Here, we present a rare case of a 20-year-old male, referred to us from a psychiatric facility for evaluation of a cough, who was found to have a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe. An extensive workup for cavitary lesion was negative, but his mycoplasma IgM level was high. A computed tomography (CT) of the chest confirmed the presence of a cavitary lesion. After treatment with levofloxacin antibiotics, a follow-up CT showed complete resolution of the lesion. Our case is a rare presentation of mycoplasma pneumonia as a cavitary lesion in a patient without any known risk factors predisposing to mycoplasma infection. Early recognition and treatment with an appropriate antibiotic may lead to complete resolution of the cavitary lesion. Muhammad Kashif, Rizwan Ahmed Dudekula, and Misbahuddin Khaja Copyright © 2017 Muhammad Kashif et al. All rights reserved. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis with Myocarditis and Ventricular Tachycardia Sun, 20 Aug 2017 09:55:23 +0000 Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, is a pulmonary-renal syndrome affecting small and medium sized blood vessels. The disease has a prevalence in studies ranging from 3 to 15.7 cases per 100,000, with a noted increasing incidence and prevalence in more recent studies. Pulmonary manifestations include hemorrhage, lung cavitary lesions, and pulmonary fibrosis. Within the kidney, GPA is known to cause rapidly progressive pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Rare and severe cardiovascular manifestations include pericarditis, arrhythmias, myocarditis, and aortic valve disease. Our patient is a 43-year-old female with typical pulmonary and renal lesions from GPA and also acute myocarditis, multiple episodes of ventricular tachycardia, and a severe reactive thrombocytosis. Ramy Magdy Hanna, Eduardo Lopez, and James Wilson Copyright © 2017 Ramy Magdy Hanna et al. All rights reserved. A Successfully Treated Case of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Causing Severe Anemia and Localized Peritonitis Showing Angina Pectoris Resulting in Watershed Cerebral Infarction Sun, 20 Aug 2017 09:15:07 +0000 Ischemic stroke following acute myocardial infarction is a rare but a serious complication. Because the pathophysiology of stroke is dynamic, it is often hard to identify the cause of stroke. Here, we present the case of a 75-year-old man with ischemic stroke following angina pectoris caused by severe anemia and localized peritonitis due to gastrointestinal stromal tumor of small intestine. On admission, he showed consciousness disturbance, fever, and left hemiplegia. The electrocardiogram on admission showed ST-segment depression in V2 to V6 which was normalized 4 hours later. The ultrasound cardiogram showed the mild hypokinesis in the apical portion of left ventricle which was also normalized later. The magnetic resonance imaging and angiography showed ischemic stroke in watershed area between right anterior and middle cerebral arteries area and stenosis of distal portion of right middle cerebral artery. The computed tomography of abdomen showed a mass of small intestine. We decided to perform curative surgery after transfusion and successfully resected the mass of the small intestine, which was revealed to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). This is a successfully treated case of GIST in which the complicated pathophysiology of watershed cerebral infarction following angina pectoris might be clearly revealed. Yoshihide Sehara, Yuka Hayashi, Kenichi Ohya, Naoki Kaneko, and Mikio Sawada Copyright © 2017 Yoshihide Sehara et al. All rights reserved. Anaphylactoid Purpura Associated with Streptococcal Cellulitis: A Case Report and Literature Review Wed, 16 Aug 2017 09:35:40 +0000 A 54-year-old Japanese man noticed painful swelling and redness of his left leg. He was admitted for treatment of cellulitis, which was accompanied with increased anti-streptolysin O and anti-streptokinase titers in his clinical course. After Piperacillin/Tazobactam administration, the skin lesion resolved. However, the patient then developed arthritis, palpable purpura, and intermittent abdominal pain, later found to be secondary to a severe duodenal ulcer. He was diagnosed with cellulitis-associated anaphylactoid purpura and was given prednisolone, which dramatically improved his symptoms. The anaphylactoid purpura was likely caused by Streptococcus-induced cellulitis, which was successfully treated with prednisolone. Association between these diseases is rare. Yuko Saito, Susumu Ookawara, Hisataka Uchima, Takeshi Ishida, Masafumi Kakei, and Hitoshi Sugawara Copyright © 2017 Yuko Saito et al. All rights reserved. More Than a Decade of Misdiagnosis of Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood with Catastrophic Outcome Wed, 16 Aug 2017 07:55:02 +0000 Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a distinct clinical disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of hemiplegia, abnormal ocular movement, and progressive developmental delay. It is an extremely rare genetic disorder related to ATP1A3 gene mutations. In this paper, we present a case of AHC in which the diagnosis was missed for many years until severe hypoxic brain insult occurred from prolonged status epilepticus. Not only we are presenting an interesting clinical entity and radiological images, but also we are shedding the light on a rare genetic disease with catastrophic sequelae. The challenges in diagnosis and treatment lead to a poor outcome as seen in our case. Although early recognition and accurate diagnosis and treatment of the disease may not change the outcome, counseling of the family may change their expectation and reduce their frustration. Referral to a center with expertise in genetic disorders and access to genetic laboratories is of paramount importance in the diagnosis of this disease. Due to the rarity of this disease in Saudi Arabia, a genotype-phenotype correlation is not feasible. Hussein Algahtani, Bashair Ibrahim, Bader Shirah, Ahmad Aldarmahi, and Ahad Abdullah Copyright © 2017 Hussein Algahtani et al. All rights reserved. HSV-1 Encephalitis: High Index of Clinical Suspicion, Prompt Diagnosis, and Early Therapeutic Intervention Are the Triptych of Success—Report of Two Cases and Comprehensive Review of the Literature Wed, 16 Aug 2017 07:12:22 +0000 Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an acute infectious disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS), usually affecting the limbic structures, the median temporal cortex, and the orbitofrontal regions. Its annual incidence has significantly increased over the last 20 years and the mortality rate is 7%, if early diagnosed and treated, and 70%, if left untreated, while it is associated with high rates of morbidity. It should be noted that even when Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis seems normal, imaging studies are not specific and HSV Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test is negative; the clinician should be more aggressive, if clinical presentation is indicative for HSV encephalitis, by administrating acyclovir early after patient’s admission. The latter may be a vital intervention for the patient, modifying the patient’s clinical course. Through the presentation of two cases of HSV-1 encephalitis that we managed in our department over the last 1 year and after systematic and comprehensive research of the relevant literature, we aim at showing the crucial role of medical history and physical examination, along with the high index of clinical suspicion, in order to make promptly the diagnosis and administer timely intravenous acyclovir, limiting the possibility of complications during the disease’s course. Dimitrios Patoulias, Georgios Gavriiloglou, Konstantinos Kontotasios, Mairi Tzakri, Petros Keryttopoulos, and Christos Koutras Copyright © 2017 Dimitrios Patoulias et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Immediate Hypersensitivity Reaction to Maltitol Tue, 15 Aug 2017 06:56:54 +0000 Background. Maltitol is a sugar alcohol that is frequently used as a noncaloric sweetener, although it is also used as an excipient, a plasticizer in gelatin capsules, and an emollient. It has not been previously described as an agent involved in immediate hypersensitivity reactions. Methods. We report on an anaphylactoid reaction with pharyngeal occlusion suffered by a 60-year-old man after ingestion of a candy containing maltitol syrup. A prick-to-prick test was performed with the candy and maltitol powder. Other allergens were excluded as causative agents of the adverse reaction, although the patient refused to undergo an oral challenge test with the candy. A basophil activation test (BAT) was performed with maltitol powder, and a dose-response curve was generated. The test was also performed in 3 healthy controls. Results. Both prick-to-prick tests were negative. The result of the BAT was positive at all the concentrations tested in the patient’s blood and negative in all the controls. Conclusions. The BAT can help to clarify the agents implicated in an adverse reaction and can reduce the risk involved in diagnosis. The BAT can also prove useful in the study of reactions caused by low-molecular-weight antigens, for which routine diagnostic tests are not feasible. Ana Rodríguez Trabado, Carmen Cámara Hijón, José Antonio García-Trujillo, Irene Magriz Trascón, and Luis Miguel Fernández Pereira Copyright © 2017 Ana Rodríguez Trabado et al. All rights reserved. Popliteal Artery Entrapment or Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome? Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Diagnosis of lower limb pain in an athlete can be a challenging task due to the variety of potential etiologies and ambiguity of presenting symptoms. Five of the most commonly encountered causes of limb pain in athletes are chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), tibial stress fractures, soleal sling syndrome, and popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES). Of these, the least frequent but potentially most serious of the pathologies is PAES. With an incidence of less than 1% seen in living subject studies, the condition is rare. However, a missed diagnosis will likely lead to progression of the disease and potential for unnecessary invasive procedures (McAree et al. 2008). In this paper, we present a young athlete misdiagnosed and treated for chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In both descriptive and a quick-reference table format, we review current literature and discuss how best to distinguish functional PAES from other causes of activity-related leg pain. Christopher Gaunder, Brandon McKinney, and Jessica Rivera Copyright © 2017 Christopher Gaunder et al. All rights reserved. Ameloblastic Fibroodontoma: Uncommon Case Presentation in a 6-Year-Old Child with Review of the Literature Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:43:43 +0000 Ameloblastic fibroodontoma is a benign mixed odontogenic neoplasm considered in patients with asymptomatic swelling and unerupted teeth that exhibit histologic features between ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. Radiographically, this lesion appears as radiolucency admixed with focal radio opaque masses of irregular shapes and sizes. This lesion is confirmed by the presence of proliferating odontogenic epithelium, ectomesenchyme, and dental hard tissue formation on pathological analysis supplementing clinical and radiographic findings. As this tumour is less commonly seen in routine clinical practice, ameloblastic fibroodontoma with detailed orofacial features and periodic approach to its diagnosis is discussed. This paper reports a case of ameloblastic fibroodontoma of the mandible in a 6-year-old male patient with an uncommon case presentation and review of the literature. Anshad Mohamed Abdulla, G. Sivadas, L. K. Surej Kumar, C. S. Sheejith Hari Peeceeyen, and Vaishnavi Vedam Copyright © 2017 Anshad Mohamed Abdulla et al. All rights reserved. Donor-Cell Origin High-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Synchronous with an Intracranial Meningioma-Like Tumor, 8 Years after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Thu, 03 Aug 2017 10:18:51 +0000 Secondary neoplasias are well known consequences of radiotherapy or chemotherapy for a primary cancer. In this report, we describe two rare secondary neoplasias occurring in the same patient: a meningioma-like intracranial tumor and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) of donor-cells origin, both diagnosed simultaneously, 8 years after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Due to an engraftment failure during the first allo-HSCT of a matched related donor for CLL treatment, the salvage treatment was a second allo-HSCT. At the moment of meningioma-like tumor diagnosis, the patient was pancytopenic due to high-risk MDS, so it was decided to postpone a surgical intervention until hematological improvement. For the high-risk MDS of donor-cells origin the chosen treatment was induction with intensive chemotherapy. Due to refractory disease, the patient was treated with 5-azacitidine and donor-lymphocytes infusion with no response and, finally, a third allo-HSCT of a matched unrelated donor was performed. The patient died 6 months after the third allo-HSCT, in cytogenetic remission but without hematological recovery, due to an intracranial hemorrhage with origin in the meningioma-like tumor. G. Brás, C. Pinho-Vaz, and A. Campos Copyright © 2017 G. Brás et al. All rights reserved. A Challenging Diagnosis of IgG4-Related Disease When Understanding Limitations of Laboratory Testing Was Pivotal Sun, 30 Jul 2017 08:05:20 +0000 A 76-year-old man was incidentally found on a CT scan to have lymphadenopathy and bilateral kidney enlargement suggestive of infiltrative renal disease. He was largely asymptomatic but had bilateral salivary and lacrimal gland enlargement. A grossly elevated serum IgG (>70 g/L) with concomitant suppression of other immunoglobulins, a small IgG restriction, and a parotid biopsy revealing lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with slight kappa light chain excess all suggested a lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). The diagnostic workup was further confounded by a normal serum IgG4 concentration. Moreover, bone marrow and renal biopsies did not reveal evidence of LPD. Discussion with the laboratory not only clarified that the markedly increased total IgG could not be accounted for by the small IgG restriction, but also identified a discrepancy in the IgG4 measurement. Repeat analysis of a follow-up sample revealed an elevated IgG4 of 5.94 (reference interval: 0.039–0.864) g/L, which prompted a repeat parotid biopsy that showed predominant IgG4+ lymphocytic infiltrates. Despite the deluding presentations, a final diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) was made based on elevated serum IgG4 concentrations and histopathological findings. This case highlights the importance of recognizing limitations of laboratory testing and the benefit of close communications among clinical subspecialties and the laboratory. Victoria Y. Y. Xu, Mary Bell, Alireza Zahirieh, Janey Hsiao, Kevin Higgins, Zeina Ghorab, Arthur Bookman, and Pak Cheung Chan Copyright © 2017 Victoria Y. Y. Xu et al. All rights reserved. Recurrent CSF Rhinorrhea Misdiagnosed as Chronic Allergic Rhinitis with Subsequent Development of Bacterial Meningitis Thu, 27 Jul 2017 07:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. Case Presentation. A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness. Previously, the patient was diagnosed with chronic allergic sinusitis by multiple providers. Physical exam findings and laboratory tests were consistent with bacterial meningitis. The patient was admitted and started on appropriate antibiotic therapy. The patient continued to complain of persistent unilateral clear nasal drainage. The initial report from the computerized tomography scan of the sinuses indicated findings consistent with chronic sinusitis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the orbits revealed findings consistent with CSF rhinorrhea. Otolaryngology was consulted for surgical intervention. Conclusion. Suspected CSF rhinorrhea should prompt immediate biochemical and radiologic evaluation and surgical consultation. CSF rhinorrhea places patients at risk of developing bacterial meningitis. Michael T. Ulrich, Lawrence K. Loo, and Michael B. Ing Copyright © 2017 Michael T. Ulrich et al. All rights reserved. Unilateral Headache Status after Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Placement Thu, 27 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation is a catheter-based treatment for coronary artery disease and decompensated heart failure to increase coronary blood flow and improve cardiac output. IABP is generally well tolerated, and complications are usually related to peripheral vasculature or red blood cell and platelet consumption. The usual insertion site via femoral artery renders the patient bedbound. Recently, axillary artery has been used in patients with atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease and documented small arteries or in those awaiting transplant to ensure ambulation and prevent deconditioning. Case Report. We present a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy and severe left ventricular dysfunction, awaiting Orthotropic Heart Transplant. His worsening intractable angina and dyspnea necessitated IABP placement via left axillary artery, significantly improving his condition. He subsequently experienced migraine-type persistent unilateral headache refractory to standard pain management. Multiple strategies were utilized to treat his pain, but the patient insisted that his pain commenced after IABP placement. Ultimately, the removal of the pump led to complete resolution with no recurrence. Conclusion. The authors hypothesize that the unilaterally directed blood flow and direct increase in cerebral perfusion from the intra-aortic balloon pump may have caused vasodilation of the extracranial arteries, leading to a persistent and debilitating headache in this susceptible patient. Garret M. Weber, Alan L. Gass, and Shalvi B. Parikh Copyright © 2017 Garret M. Weber et al. All rights reserved. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions Causing Hypercalcemia: A Rare Presentation of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Mon, 17 Jul 2017 08:44:57 +0000 Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is characterized by unchecked proliferation of malignant lymphoblasts which replaces the normal bone marrow culminating in anemia due to red blood cells inadequacy as well as in easy bruising/bleeding secondary to insufficient platelets production. Even the white blood cells which are produced excessively are immature and abnormal. ALL is the most common hematological malignancy in children. Most commonly, patients present with lymphadenopathy, recurrent infections, bleeding, fatigue, and bone pains. Bone pains, often particularly involving long bones, occur in about 21–38% of cases and are due to overcrowding of bone marrow with malignant cells. Vast majority of children with ALL have thrombocytopenia and/or anemia with a normal or mildly elevated white blood cells count with the presence of lymphoblasts on peripheral smear. About 50% of children present with bleeding while about 75% of patients have platelet count 100,000/microL. Visceromegaly is not uncommon but osteolytic lesions and hypercalcemia are rather uncommon. We present a 22-year-old gentleman with generalized fatigue and bone pains without visceromegaly. There was severe hypercalcemia with normal parathyroid levels but multiple osteolytic lesions. Peripheral smear showed anemia without blasts, whereas a bone marrow biopsy revealed > 30% blasts with interspersed CD 10 positive cells. Khalid Mahmood, Muhammad Ubaid, and Syeda Taliya Rizvi Copyright © 2017 Khalid Mahmood et al. All rights reserved. A Unique Case for Spinal Cord Stimulation: Successful Treatment of Small Fiber Neuropathy Pain Using Multiple Spinal Cord Stimulators Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Spinal cord stimulators have commonly been used to treat multiple pain conditions. This case report represents a unique case of using multiple spinal cord stimulators for widespread small fiber neuropathy pain. This case report concerns patient JJ who first presented with generalized neuropathic pain. His pain was an intermittent burning, stinging quality that originally focused in both of his feet and progressed to include his legs and arms and eventually involved his entire body. The pain would last moments to hours at least daily. He reported a poor quality of life. He was diagnosed with small fiber neuropathy with anhydrosis, suggestive of idiopathic erythromelalgia. He had a spinal cord stimulator trial involving both cervical and lower thoracic percutaneous leads. After two spinal cord stimulators were implanted, the patient began to report an improvement in pain. The patient continues to report excellent pain relief. The patient uses the stimulator intermittently as needed, in an abortive fashion for pain flares. The patient is very pleased and has increased his activity. He now attends graduate school full time. This case report hopes to illustrate a unique use of multiple spinal cord stimulators in treating widespread neuropathic pain caused by small fiber neuropathy. Maxim Eckmann, Alexander Papanastassiou, and Mark Awad Copyright © 2017 Maxim Eckmann et al. All rights reserved. Torsion of Atypical Meckel’s Diverticulum Treated by Laparoscopic-Assisted Surgery Thu, 13 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Meckel’s diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital anomaly of the intestine, with an incidence of 2~4%. Of those, only 2% of patients with MD are symptomatic. Torsion of MD is extremely rare, and only a dozen cases have been previously reported. Case Report. The patient was a 49-year-old male who presented to our emergency room with a chief complaint of lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography imaging revealed an irregular polycystic mass connected to the small intestine that measured 7.5 cm in a diameter. A laparoscopic-assisted partial resection of the jejunum was performed. The lesion was found to have caused torsion and was located 130 cm from the ileocecal valve. The specimen was polycystic in appearance and showed communicating links with the submucosal layer of jejunum but not with the lumen. The pathological diagnosis was a torsion of an atypical presentation of MD. Conclusion. This case was different from typical cases of MD in that it was located on significantly oral side and had the appearance of polycystic morphology. Atsushi Kohga, Kimihiro Yamashita, Yuto Hasegawa, Kiyoshige Yajima, Takuya Okumura, Jun Isogaki, Kenji Suzuki, Akihiro Kawabe, and Akira Komiyama Copyright © 2017 Atsushi Kohga et al. All rights reserved. Secondary Syphilis Presenting as Glossodynia, Plaques en Prairie Fauchée, and a Split Papule at the Oral Commissure: Case Report and Review Wed, 12 Jul 2017 07:45:35 +0000 Syphilis has been coined “the great imitator” due to its extreme heterogeneity of presentation and mimicry of other conditions. Therefore, it is essential that physicians be familiar with the full spectrum of its manifestations. Syphilis may also lead to oral lesions that, occasionally, are unaccompanied by concomitant tegumentary findings. Such patients will pose unique diagnostic challenges. We report the case of a 45-year-old HIV-infected male patient in whom secondary syphilis presented with burning mouth and dysgeusia that progressed to glossodynia and odynophagia. Examination revealed painful, shallow erosions on the posterior aspect of the tongue, in a pattern of plaques en prairie fauchée. A painful split papule (fausse perlèche or false angular cheilitis) was also present in the left commissure. There were no cutaneous lesions. The oral lesions were considered highly suggestive of secondary syphilis. A novel VDRL assay (which was previously negative) yielded a titer of 1/128. Complete clinical remission was rapidly achieved after initiation of penicillin therapy. A comprehensive review of the literature on oral manifestations of syphilis is offered. Walter de Araujo Eyer-Silva, Maria Alessandra Leite Freire, Cecília Angelina Horta-Araujo, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da Silva, Jorge Francisco da Cunha Pinto, and Fernando Raphael de Almeida Ferry Copyright © 2017 Walter de Araujo Eyer-Silva et al. All rights reserved. Seronegative Autoimmune Hepatitis A Clinically Challenging Difficult Diagnosis Thu, 06 Jul 2017 10:09:06 +0000 Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a complex liver disease of unknown cause which results in immune-mediated liver injury with varied clinical presentations. Seronegative AIH follows a similar course to autoantibody-positive disease and diagnosis may be challenging. There are no single serologic tests of sufficient diagnostic specificity, and delay in appropriate treatment may lead to progression of the liver disease and liver failure. The revised conventional diagnostic criteria (RDC) scoring for AIH is complex and not routinely used in the clinical practice. The more recent simplified diagnostic criteria (SDC) scoring proposed by International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group in 2008 has wider application in routine practice facilitating the diagnosis of AIH with a specificity and sensitivity of ~90%. In this report, we describe a case of seronegative autoimmune hepatitis diagnosed using RDC. SDC score calculated in our case was 4 and was not diagnostic for AIH. We subsequently used the complex revised diagnostic criteria for definitive diagnosis. Some of the patients previously diagnosed as cryptogenic active hepatitis of unknown etiology probably had an unrecognized diagnosis of seronegative autoimmune hepatitis. SDC scoring may not be applicable in patients with seronegative autoimmune hepatitis. These patients should be reassessed by using RDC. Jagannath M. Sherigar, Arefiev Yavgeniy, Debra Guss, Nhu Ngo, and Smruti Mohanty Copyright © 2017 Jagannath M. Sherigar et al. All rights reserved.