Case Reports in Medicine The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Multiple Manifestations in a Single Patient—A High Suspicion Is Still Needed Tue, 23 May 2017 06:35:18 +0000 Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder with clinical and laboratory features of vascular thrombosis, pregnancy loss, and persistent antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The pathophysiology is thought to involve the activation of endothelial cells, monocytes, platelets, and complement by aPLs. Disease can range from asymptomatic to rapidly fatal catastrophic APS. We present a case of a 34-year-old male referred for pancytopenia and splenomegaly. On examination, he had decreased sensation and 4/5 power in the left upper extremity. A lacy, purplish rash was noted on the trunk and upper extremity. MRI of brain showed acute/subacute lacunar infarctions. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level, bilirubin and ferritin, decreased haptoglobin, and positive Coombs test. Antinuclear antibody test was negative and antiphospholipid antibody panel revealed positivity for anti-cardiolipin IgG and IgM, antiphosphatidylserine IgG, and anti-β2-glycoprotein IgG. The patient was diagnosed with primary APS. Pancytopenia is relatively rare in primary APS and is more often seen in secondary APS. Our patient demonstrated involvement of multiple organ systems as well as livedo reticularis and autoimmune-related findings such as Raynaud phenomenon and Coombs positive hemolytic anemia. We discuss the various clinical and laboratory findings in patients with APS that aid in diagnosis, as well as important management considerations. Uroosa Ibrahim, Shiksha Kedia, Gwenalyn Garcia, and Jean Paul Atallah Copyright © 2017 Uroosa Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Surgical Technique for Fixation of Recurrent Acromioclavicular Dislocations: AC Dog Bone Technique in Combination with Autogenous Semitendinosus Tendon Graft Tue, 23 May 2017 06:19:09 +0000 Various surgical techniques have been described for the fixation of acromioclavicular (AC) dislocations. However, recurrent dislocation is one of the main complications associated with the majority of these techniques. We report a case of postoperative AC joint redislocation. In order to overcome recurrent dislocation after revision surgery, a reconstruction of the conoid and trapezoid ligament with the use of a free tendon graft in combination with a FiberTape was provided within a novel surgical technique. After 12 months, the patient was very satisfied with the functional outcome. The patient achieved excellent results in the Constant (98 points), SPADI (0 points), and QuickDASH score (0 points). The described technique results in an anatomic reconstruction of the AC joint. The nonrigid nature of the intervention seems to restore the normal arthrokinematics by reconstructing the coracoclavicular ligaments with an autograft which is then protected by the AC Dog Bone artificial ligaments during the healing period. The arthroscopic approach to the AC joint with minimal exposure reduces the risks and complications of the intervention. This is the first case in literature that utilizes the artificial dog bone ligament securing the autograft in an anatomic AC reconstruction. Patrick Holweg, Wolfgang Pichler, Gerald Gruber, Ellen Tackner, Franz Josef Seibert, Patrick Sadoghi, and Gloria Hohenberger Copyright © 2017 Patrick Holweg et al. All rights reserved. Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy Presenting with Unusual Behavioural Disturbances in an Adolescent Girl Sun, 21 May 2017 08:55:56 +0000 Hashimoto’s encephalopathy (HE) is a rare autoimmune disorder with neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations and elevated titres of anti-thyroid antibodies. Here we are reporting a case of HE in a 19-year-old girl who presented with seizure-like episodes, confusion, and behavioural disturbances with catatonic symptoms such as posturing, echopraxia, echolalia, and ambivalence. Patient did not respond to antipsychotics and anticonvulsants. On further investigation, patient was found to have high serum anti-TPO antibodies of about 1261 U/mL with euthyroid status, which supported a suspicion of HE. Our consultant neurologist confirmed the diagnosis and she was started on injection of methylprednisolone 750 mg OD. Since patient started showing clinical improvement, her antipsychotic medications were tapered off. On follow-up, patient has recovered and is functioning well. Since HE is a diagnosis of exclusion, very high anti-TPO antibodies and good response to steroids supported the diagnosis of HE in this patient after excluding other etiological possibilities. This case has been reported because the clinical presentation was predominantly neurobehavioural manifestations which is uncommon with HE. Murugan Selvaraj Karthik, Kulothungan Nandhini, Viswanath Subashini, and Ramasamy Balakrishnan Copyright © 2017 Murugan Selvaraj Karthik et al. All rights reserved. Portal Hypertensive Biliopathy Presents with Massive Bleeding during ERCP after Balloon Sphincteroplasty in a Noncirrhotic Saudi Sickler Patient Sun, 14 May 2017 08:08:06 +0000 Portal hypertensive biliopathy (PHB) is described as abnormalities of the walls of the biliary tree secondary to portal hypertension. Gastrointestinal bleeding caused by PHB is rare. PHB as a cause of serious bleeding after sphincteroplasty during ERCP is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of PHB in a young Saudi male with cell sickle anemia who developed massive hemorrhage during ERCP after balloon dilation of the ampulla of Vater. We further discussed the diagnosis and management. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported. Ahmad M. Al-Akwaa, Mohammed Elsadig, Ahmed E. Al-Fayaa, and Mohja D. Al-Shehri Copyright © 2017 Ahmad M. Al-Akwaa et al. All rights reserved. Ventilator Management of Bronchopleural Fistula Secondary to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Necrotizing Pneumonia in a Pregnant Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Sun, 14 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Managing mechanical ventilation in patient with bronchopleural fistula with coexisting acute respiratory distress syndrome is a challenging situation for the intensivist. We are reporting a case of a pregnant patient with systemic lupus erythematosus on immunosuppressive medications who developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia complicated by bronchopleural fistula and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ahmed F. Alohali, Saleh Abu-Daff, Kamardeen Alao, and Mohammed Almaani Copyright © 2017 Ahmed F. Alohali et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Urachal Carcinoma of the Abdominal Wall in a Kidney Transplant Recipient Thu, 04 May 2017 06:41:49 +0000 Urachal carcinoma is an extremely rare malignant tumor arising from the urachus in the fetus. We report a patient who developed urachal carcinoma 18 years after kidney transplantation. A 59-year-old man was admitted because of abdominal pain and massive ascites. He had undergone kidney transplantation 18 years earlier and had end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis. Abdominal CT showed massive ascites and an abdominal wall cystic mass separated from the peritoneal cavity. Hemodialysis was started, and paralytic ileus was diagnosed and treated. His ileus symptoms improved temporarily, but he died of myocardial infarction. An autopsy was performed, which revealed cystadenocarcinoma in the abdominal wall mass, leading to a diagnosis of urachal carcinoma. Takuya Yamazaki, Yasushi Nagaba, Yoshitaka Shimada, Yoshinori Taoka, Satoru Minamida, Dai Koguchi, Masahiro Hagiwara, Sho Watanuki, Hide Nagaba, Kazunari Yoshida, and Yasuo Takeuchi Copyright © 2017 Takuya Yamazaki et al. All rights reserved. Asymptomatic Brain Edema after Hemodialysis Initiation in a Patient with Severe Uremia Wed, 03 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 A 66-year-old man with severe renal insufficiency presented with mild confusion associated with uremia. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no remarkable changes. The patient was placed on short-duration hemodialysis (2 hours) with smaller surface area and low blood flow (100 mL/min) to avoid dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS). His consciousness gradually improved and he did not develop apparent DDS symptoms. However, T2-weighted FLAIR MRI showed increased signal intensities bilaterally in the cortical and subcortical areas of the occipital lobe on day 15. In other words, cranial MRI showed cerebral edema, indicating asymptomatic DDS. On day 29, cranial MRI showed a return to findings on admission. In this case, because the patient did not have apparent DDS symptoms despite MRI changes, we diagnosed asymptomatic cerebral edema. The patient was discharged on regular intermittent HD without any neurological deficits. No further neurological disturbances were noted during 1-year follow-up. MRI findings in ESKD patients without DDS symptoms help to clarify the diagnosis of cerebral edema. In this case, the patient did not have apparent DDS symptoms and was therefore diagnosed with asymptomatic cerebral edema. Kiichiro Fujisaki, Kaneyasu Nakagawa, Hiroshi Nagae, Toshiaki Nakano, Masatomo Taniguchi, Kosuke Masutani, Takanari Kitazono, and Kazuhiko Tsuruya Copyright © 2017 Kiichiro Fujisaki et al. All rights reserved. Forsaken Foregut: Case Report of Simultaneous Black Esophagus and Ischemic Cholangiopathy Mon, 24 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Black esophagus or acute esophageal necrosis rarely occurs after severe hemodynamic compromise or low-flow states. Other contributing factors may include corrosive injury from gastric contents and diminished mucosal repair mechanisms. Ischemic cholangitis, another rare clinical entity, is also usually the result of a significant vascular and/or hypotensive insult to the biliary tree. We describe the first case of combined acute esophageal necrosis and ischemic cholangiopathy in a 62-year-old male who completely recovered from the esophageal injury but developed progressive liver failure from ischemic cholangiopathy. Paul A. Cameron and Franzjosef Schweiger Copyright © 2017 Paul A. Cameron and Franzjosef Schweiger. All rights reserved. Intraplacental Choriocarcinoma: Rare or Underdiagnosed? Report of 2 Cases Diagnosed after an Incomplete Miscarriage and a Preterm Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery Sun, 16 Apr 2017 08:19:53 +0000 Intraplacental choriocarcinoma is a rare malignant tumor diagnosed after an abortion, an ectopic pregnancy, or a term or preterm pregnancy or following the diagnosis of a hydatidiform mole. During pregnancy, it may be more common than reported, as most patients are asymptomatic and placental choriocarcinomas are usually inconspicuous macroscopically and are often mistaken for an infarct. Based upon a case study methodology, we describe 2 cases of intraplacental choriocarcinoma: the first case was identified in the product of a uterine curettage following an incomplete miscarriage and the second in one of the placentas of a bichorionic twin pregnancy. Maternal investigation did not reveal evidence of metastatic disease and neither did the infants’ one in the second case. The two cases underwent maternal surveillance with serum hCG and remained disease-free until the present. In conclusion, intraplacental choriocarcinoma is easily underdiagnosed but with current treatment, even in the presence of metastasis, the prognosis is excellent. A routine microscopic examination of all the placentas and products of miscarriage can increase the real incidence of this entity and consequently improve its management. Rita Ferraz Caldas, Paula Oliveira, Cátia Rodrigues, Inês Reis, Horácio Scigliano, Rosete Nogueira, Célia Araújo, and Soledade Ferreira Copyright © 2017 Rita Ferraz Caldas et al. All rights reserved. Serum Cytokine Profile in a Patient Diagnosed with Dysferlinopathy Thu, 13 Apr 2017 07:27:40 +0000 Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2B) is a mild form of dysferlinopathy, characterized by limb weakness and wasting. It is an autosomal recessive disease, with currently 140 mutations in the LGMD2B gene identified. Lack of functional dysferlin inhibits muscle fiber regeneration in voluntary muscles, the main pathological finding in LGMD2B patients. However, the immune system has been suggested to contribute to muscle cell death and tissue regeneration. Serum levels of 27 cytokines were evaluated in a dysferlinopathy patient. Levels of 8 cytokines differed in patient serum compared to controls. Five cytokines (IL-10, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL10, and G-CSF) were higher while 3 were lower in the patient than in controls (IL-2, IL-8, and CCL11). Together, these data on serum cytokine profile of this dysferlinopathy patient suggest immune response activation, which could explain leukocyte infiltration in the muscle tissue. Svetlana F. Khaiboullina, Ekaterina V. Martynova, Sergey N. Bardakov, Mikhail O. Mavlikeev, Ivan A. Yakovlev, Arthur A. Isaev, Roman V. Deev, and Albert A. Rizvanov Copyright © 2017 Svetlana F. Khaiboullina et al. All rights reserved. Atorvastatin-Diltiazem Combination Induced Rhabdomyolysis Leading to Diagnosis of Hypothyroidism Tue, 11 Apr 2017 09:08:15 +0000 Statins and hypothyroidism, independently, can rarely cause rhabdomyolysis. The combination of them especially with concurrent intake of drugs such as diltiazem increases the risk of rhabdomyolysis. Hashimoto’s encephalopathy is a rare condition associated with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and some patients with that can present with a stroke like picture. An elderly male who has been on atorvastatin for three years and on diltiazem for a week presented with sudden onset inability to walk and confusion. On examination muscle tenderness was noticed and creatine kinase levels indicated rhabdomyolysis which we attributed to atorvastatin. Patient developed a seizure and myoclonus of masseters. Considering this, his confusion and his neutrophilia and high C-reactive protein levels, empirical antibiotics with dexamethasone were started and the patient responded to that. His cerebrospinal fluid and blood culture reports that arrived later did not show sepsis. After going home also his CK (creatine kinase) levels remained high; TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) level test was done and hypothyroidism was diagnosed. His antithyroid peroxidase antibody levels were also very high. We retrospectively think he had Hashimoto’s encephalopathy as well. His lipid profile and TSH and CK values returned to normal in that order after a few months of levothyroxine therapy. N. D. B. Ehelepola, S. M. B. Y. Sathkumara, H. M. P. A. G. S. Bandara, and K. L. R. Kalupahana Copyright © 2017 N. D. B. Ehelepola et al. All rights reserved. Delirium and High Creatine Kinase and Myoglobin Levels Related to Synthetic Cannabinoid Withdrawal Mon, 10 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are included in a group of drugs called new psychoactive substances. Effects of SCs on the central nervous system are similar to other cannabinoids, but 2–100 times more potent than marijuana. Thus, addiction and withdrawal symptoms are more severe than natural cannabinoids. Withdrawal symptoms of SCs were reported in the literature previously. But there is no report about SC withdrawal delirium and its treatment. Several studies reported that agonists of CB1 receptors play a role in GABA and glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is similar to the effects of alcohol on GABA and glutamatergic receptors. Previous studies on alcohol delirium cases suggested that elevated creatine kinase (CK) can be a marker of progress. This study reports delirium and high serum CK levels related to SC withdrawal and offers a treatment with benzodiazepine for them. We described two cases treated in our inpatient clinic about SC withdrawal with increase of serum CK level and other laboratory parameters. One of them demonstrated delirium symptoms and the other did not with early rapid treatment. Ahmet Bulent Yazici, Esra Yazici, and Atila Erol Copyright © 2017 Ahmet Bulent Yazici et al. All rights reserved. Bacteremia and Urinary Tract Infection Caused by Chromobacterium violaceum: Case Reports from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal Wed, 05 Apr 2017 07:41:57 +0000 Chromobacterium violaceum is ubiquitous in the environment of tropical and subtropical regions but the infections caused by this organism are rare and the urinary tract infections caused by it are even rarer. Due to the propensity for hematogenous spread leading to fatal sepsis, the infections caused by Chromobacterium violaceum have high mortality rate (65–80%) with death occurring in as less as one week of acquiring infection. So, prompt proper treatment is necessary for successful treatment of the infections but, due to the rarity of the infections caused by the organism, there is limited awareness among the clinicians regarding the infections caused by this organism. Here, we reported a case of urinary tract infection caused by Chromobacterium violaceum in a 84-year-old male, who was a kidney patient, and another case of bacteremia caused by the same bacterium in a road traffic accident patient (22-year-old male), both of which were managed with the timely suitable treatment. Narayan Dutt Pant, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Raju Bhandari, Uday Narayan Yadav, Dil Bahadur Saru, and Manisha Sharma Copyright © 2017 Narayan Dutt Pant et al. All rights reserved. Nasogastric Tube Feeding-Induced Esophageal Bezoar: Case Description Wed, 05 Apr 2017 06:50:59 +0000 Background. Bezoars are well established entities causing gastrointestinal obstructions. Depending on the prominent constituent of these bezoars, the latter are divided into four subtypes: pharmacobezoars, lactobezoars, trichobezoars, and phytobezoars. Less frequently reported types of bezoars are reported including those formed secondary to nasogastric tube feeding with casein-based formulas. Case Presentation. A 69-year-old male presented following cardiac arrest postmyocardial infarction. Patient sustained anoxic brain injury after resuscitation, rendering him ventilator dependant along with nasogastric tube feeding, initially. Dislodging of the nasogastric tube at one time rendered it difficult to reinsert it, with investigation showing the presence of calcified material within the distal oesophagus, mainly composed of casein-based products secondary to enteral feeding. Conclusion. Bezoars are well known to cause gastrointestinal obstructions due to their indigestible characteristics within the alimentary tract. More rare causes of bezoars include those formed from casein-based feeding formulas administered to patients with sustained enteral feeding. Esophageal obstruction, secondary to casein-based bezoars, occurs due to multiple risk factors, especially in those necessitating intensive care. Approach in such scenarios requires a multiteam approach. Jad A. Degheili, Mikhael G. Sebaaly, and Ali H. Hallal Copyright © 2017 Jad A. Degheili et al. All rights reserved. Severe Murine Typhus Presenting with Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Report and Literature Review Tue, 04 Apr 2017 08:48:42 +0000 A 54-year-old otherwise healthy male, who was being evaluated for prolonged fever, developed clinical and ultrasonographic signs compatible with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Diagnosis of murine typhus was confirmed by serology and the patient was treated with doxycycline. He improved rapidly and all clinical and laboratory abnormalities returned to normal. The present case dictates that knowledge of the local epidemiology and keeping a high index of clinical suspicion can help recognize uncommon manifestations of murine typhus, in order to treat appropriately and avoid unnecessary investigations and interventions. Nikolaos Spernovasilis, Constantinos Tsioutis, Maria Zafeiri, Georgios Hamilos, and Achilleas Gikas Copyright © 2017 Nikolaos Spernovasilis et al. All rights reserved. Reversible Inferolateral ST-Segment Elevation Associated with Small Bowel Obstruction Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 ST-segment elevation is an important and alarming electrocardiographic sign that necessitates immediate attention but does not always indicate that the primary pathology is cardiac in origin. It needs to be interpreted in the clinical context as several pathological conditions involving especially gastrointestinal tract may lead to delayed diagnosis and treatment as well as complications from invasive unnecessary interventions. We present two patients, a 64-year-old male and a 71-year-old female, who were admitted to the emergency room of a community-based hospital with similar complaints of worsening epigastric abdominal pain and were diagnosed later with small bowel obstruction. Both patients reported a history of abdominal surgeries in the past. Also in both patients the ECG showed signs of ST-segment elevation in inferior and lateral leads. These ECG changes were related to the intra-abdominal pathology as no evidence of contributing coronary artery disease could be found. In addition, prompt resolution of ST-segment elevation was seen after surgical treatment. The pathophysiological etiology of electrocardiographic changes accompanying small bowel obstruction is yet to be explored. Ankit Upadhyay, Sudheer Chauhan, Umair Jangda, Vipul Bodar, and Ahmed Al-Chalabi Copyright © 2017 Ankit Upadhyay et al. All rights reserved. A Curious Case of Intestinal Diaphragm Disease Unmasked by Perforation of a Duodenal Ulcer Mon, 27 Mar 2017 06:33:14 +0000 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a common cause of intestinal injury. A variety of NSAID-induced injuries may occur including ulcers, erosions, colitis, strictures, and diaphragm disease. Diaphragm disease refers to the development of multiple thin, concentric, stenosing strictures in the intestine. Strictures occur most often in the midintestine and are thought to be pathognomonic of NSAID damage. They can lead to intermittent or complete bowel obstruction. Diagnosis may be elusive as there is nothing specific about NSAID-induced injury at endoscopy and histology is also nonspecific. Even at laparotomy, the diagnosis of diaphragm disease may be missed as the serosa may appear normal and strictures can be difficult to palpate. While most NSAID-induced lesions tend to resolve quickly following withdrawal of the offending drug, diaphragm-like strictures usually require intervention such as stricturoplasty or surgical resection of the involved segment of bowel. Here we report the case of a 60-year-old male patient who presented with iron deficiency anaemia and recurrent subacute bowel obstruction. Following endoscopy and repeated CT scanning of his abdomen, he was diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. He was treated with 5-ASAs and immune suppression until a perforated duodenal ulcer resulted in emergency laparotomy and the subsequent discovery of multiple intestinal diaphragms attributable to long-standing NSAID use. Mairéad McNally and Ion Cretu Copyright © 2017 Mairéad McNally and Ion Cretu. All rights reserved. Tongue Necrosis Secondary to Giant Cell Arteritis: A Case Report and Literature Review Thu, 23 Mar 2017 08:17:30 +0000 Giant cell arteritis is a form of vasculitis involving the medium- and large-sized arteries that chiefly affects older people. Clinical findings are headache, jaw claudication, fever, pain, and thickening of the temporal artery. The most feared complication is visual loss due to impairment of the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries. This a case report of an 85-year-old male presenting with headache and jaw pain, who was admitted with tongue necrosis as an initial manifestation of giant cell arteritis. The necrotic area detached spontaneously after two weeks of therapy with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Reviewing the literature, our patient presented with clinical symptoms consistent with most reports, except for the fact of being male. Although unusual as an initial manifestation, tongue necrosis is an important alert for diagnosing giant cell arteritis. Early diagnosis and treatment of this atypical manifestation may reduce morbidity. Rafael Alex Barbosa de Siqueira Sobrinho, Karolina Cayres Alvino de Lima, Helena Carvalho Moura, Mônica Modesto Araújo, Christyanne Maria Rodrigues Barreto de Assis, and Pedro Alves da Cruz Gouveia Copyright © 2017 Rafael Alex Barbosa de Siqueira Sobrinho et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis Associated with Renoduodenal Fistula Thu, 23 Mar 2017 07:10:06 +0000 Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare form of pyelonephritis associated with repeated infection, chronic inflammation, and obstruction. Various fistulas, including those to the intestine, are a known association with XGP. Here, a 55-year-old woman with a history of multiple previous renal calculi presented with dysuria and back pain. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a soft tissue density in her renal pelvis and perirenal space consistent with XGP along with a tract connecting the upper pole of her right kidney to the second portion of the duodenum. This finding was subsequently confirmed during percutaneous nephrostomy placement, stent placement, a small bowel follow-through study, and upper endoscopy. She was diagnosed with XGP with associated renoduodenal fistula, eventually treated by open nephrectomy with fistula takedown. Histopathologic analysis was consistent with the diagnosis of XGP with no malignant or infectious cause of the fistula. XGP should be considered in the diagnosis of patients with dysuria and back pain, especially when a history of obstruction or chronic inflammation. Associated fistulas should also be considered prior to surgical management to prevent complications. R. Conor Holton-Burke and Mini Varughese Copyright © 2017 R. Conor Holton-Burke and Mini Varughese. All rights reserved. Drug Induced Pneumonitis Secondary to Treatment with Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir and Dasabuvir (VIEKIRA PAK®) for Chronic Hepatitis C: Case Report of an Unexpected Life-Threatening Adverse Reaction Mon, 20 Mar 2017 09:21:02 +0000 VIEKIRA PAK (ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir) is an approved treatment for compensated patients with genotype 1 (GT1) chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This oral regimen has minimal adverse effects and is well tolerated. Cure rates are 97% in patients infected with HCV GT 1a and 99% in those with HCV GT 1b. We report the first case of life-threatening allergic pneumonitis associated with VIEKIRA PAK. This unexpected serious adverse event occurred in a 68-year-old Chinese female with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C and Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. One week into treatment with VIEKIRA PAK without ribavirin, she was admitted to hospital with respiratory distress and acute kidney injury requiring intensive care input. She was initially diagnosed with community acquired pneumonia and improved promptly with intravenous antibiotics and supported care. No bacterial or viral pathogens were cultured. Following complete recovery, she recommenced VIEKIRA PAK but represented 5 days later with more rapidly progressive respiratory failure, requiring intubation and ventilation, inotropic support, and haemodialysis. The final diagnosis was drug induced pneumonitis. Shih Yea Sylvia Wu, Bridget Faire, and Edward Gane Copyright © 2017 Shih Yea Sylvia Wu et al. All rights reserved. Huge Lymphangioma of the Esophagus Resected by Endoscopic Piecemeal Mucosal Resection Mon, 20 Mar 2017 08:26:02 +0000 We present an unusual case of a 41-year-old male patient with a large lymphangioma of the esophagus. Endoscopy revealed that the structure measured 60 × 10 mm in the mucosa and the submucosa and had a heterogenous echo pattern. The esophageal mass was successfully resected by endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection. However, most esophageal lymphangiomas that are larger than 2 cm in diameter reported in the literature can be removed only through open surgery. Thus far, we know of no reported cases of endoscopic resection as a treatment for this case. Dinghai Luo, Liping Ye, Weidan Wu, Haihong Zheng, and Xinli Mao Copyright © 2017 Dinghai Luo et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Initially Undiagnosed Chikungunya Arthritis Developing into Chronic Phase in a Nonendemic Area Mon, 20 Mar 2017 06:43:45 +0000 This case report described a 40-year-old lady presented with fever, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, and impaired liver function after returning from the Philippines. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and dengue serology were negative. Eight weeks after initial presentation, she experienced inflammatory polyarthritis mimic rheumatoid arthritis. This time CHIKV-IgM was detected, together with a >4-fold rise of CHIKV-polyvalent-antibody titre. The first CHIKV-IgM negative sample was reexamined and was CHIKV-PCR positive. CHIKV infection was confirmed and diagnosis of CHIKV-related arthritis was made. A quarter of CHIKV infected individuals develop post-CHIKV rheumatisms that affect quality of life and may need treatment with Disease Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs. This case highlights the importance of considering CHIKV infection in patients present with symmetrical polyarthritis particularly after travel to endemic regions. Testing of both CHIKV acute and convalescent-phase serum for CHIKV antibodies and PCR is recommended in suspicious case. Pui Shan Julia Chan and Moon Ho Leung Copyright © 2017 Pui Shan Julia Chan and Moon Ho Leung. All rights reserved. The Great Impostor: Transaminitis Masking the Coinfection of Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. The incidence of syphilis continues to rise in the United States over the past 15 years. This disease process is classified into stages and may present with a coinfection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Case Report. We present a case of a 32-year-old African American male who presented with cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis and transaminitis. A workup revealed that the transaminitis was secondary to underlying syphilitic hepatitis in the presence of HIV coinfection. The patient had a reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) of 1 : 64 TU and reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Lab findings showed alkaline phosphate (ALP) of 648 unit/L, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) of 251 unit/L, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of 409 unit/L. Conclusion. Syphilitic hepatitis is a recognized entity in the medical literature. It is a manifestation of secondary syphilis and it is more commonly seen in coinfected patients with both syphilis and HIV. Therefore, primary care physicians should keep infectious etiologies (e.g., syphilis and HIV) in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with unexplained liver dysfunction in a cholestatic pattern. Sunit Tolia, Hassan Kassem, and Ana Capatina-Rata Copyright © 2017 Sunit Tolia et al. All rights reserved. Endovascular Stent Grafting for Aortic Arch Aneurysm in Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease following Aortic Arch Debranching and Aortobifemoral Reconstruction Thu, 16 Mar 2017 07:16:07 +0000 Treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms constitutes high mortality and morbidity rates despite improvements in surgery, anesthesia, and technology. Endovascular stent grafting may be an alternative therapy with lower risks when compared with conventional techniques. However, sometimes the branches of the aortic arch may require transport to the proximal segments prior to successful thoracic aortic endovascular stent grafting. Atherosclerosis is accounted among the etiology of both aneurysms and occlusive diseases that can coexist in the same patient. In these situations stent grafting may even be more complicated. In this report, we present the treatment of a 92-year-old patient with aortic arch aneurysm and proximal descending aortic aneurysm. For successful thoracic endovascular stent grafting, the patient needed an alternative route other than the native femoral and iliac arteries for the deployment of the stent graft. In addition, debranching of left carotid and subclavian arteries from the aortic arch was also required for successful exclusion of the thoracic aneurysm. Didem Melis Oztas, Cagla Canbay, Yilmaz Onal, Metin Onur Beyaz, Omer Ali Sayin, Mehmet Barburoglu, Mehmet Buget, Mesut Yornuk, Aziz Ari, Murat Ugurlucan, Bulent Acunas, Ufuk Alpagut, and Enver Dayioglu Copyright © 2017 Didem Melis Oztas et al. All rights reserved. Pacemaker Placement in Patients with Stroke-Mediated Autonomic Dysregulation Thu, 16 Mar 2017 07:15:34 +0000 Lateral medullary syndrome (LMS) is an ischemic disease of the medulla oblongata, which involves the territory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Lateral medullary syndrome is often missed as the cause of autonomic dysregulation in patients with recent brain stem stroke. Due to the location of the baroreceptor regulatory center in the lateral medulla oblongata, patients with LMS occasionally have autonomic dysregulation-associated clinical manifestations. We report a case of LMS-associated autonomic dysregulation. The case presented as sinus arrest and syncope, requiring permanent pacemaker placement. A dual-chamber pacemaker was placed, after failure of conservative measures to alleviate the patient’s symptoms. Our case shows the importance of recognizing LMS as a potential cause for life-threatening arrhythmias, heart block, and symptomatic bradycardia. Placement of permanent pacemaker may be necessary in some patients with LMS presenting with syncope, secondary to sinus arrest. Ali A. Alsaad, Christopher O. Austin, Maisha T. Robinson, and Michael B. Phillips Copyright © 2017 Ali A. Alsaad et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Cortical Deafness due to Bilateral Heschl Gyrus Infarct Tue, 14 Mar 2017 09:55:34 +0000 We report the case of a 58-year-old male who presented with an episode of seizure and abrupt onset hearing loss. Neuroimaging revealed acute infarcts in bilateral Heschl gyri. Objective tests of peripheral auditory function were essentially normal and a diagnosis of cortical deafness was made. Santhosh Narayanan, K. Abdul Majeed, Gomathy Subramaniam, Arathi Narayanan, and K. M. Navaf Copyright © 2017 Santhosh Narayanan et al. All rights reserved. Ulcerated Lesion of the Tongue as Manifestation of Systemic Coccidioidomycosis Mon, 13 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Systemic mycoses and their oral manifestations are very rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old man with an ulcerated lesion on the lateral border of the tongue. Histologic studies revealed a granulomatous fungal infection by Coccidioides immitis. After pharmacological treatment, the lesion resolved. Recently, northern Mexico has been reported to be an endemic zone of C. immitis infections; therefore it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of mouth lesions. A comprehensive clinical history, physical exploration, and complementary studies are essential for an accurate diagnosis. Luis A. Mendez, Sergio A. Flores, Ricardo Martinez, and Oslei Paes de Almeida Copyright © 2017 Luis A. Mendez et al. All rights reserved. Rare Gingival Metastasis by Hepatocellular Carcinoma Sun, 12 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) uncommonly metastasizes to the gingiva, which always means a poor outcome. We reported a rare HCC case with multiple metastases to gingiva, lungs, and brain. A 60-year-old man was initially diagnosed as HCC with metastases to double lungs. He was subjected to a transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) (5-fluorouracil, 750 mg) and two cycles of intravenous chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1.8 g at days 1 and 8, oxaliplatin 200 mg at day 2, every 4 weeks). However, the volume of liver tumor still increased. A bean-size gingival nodule growing with occasional bleeding was also found. TACE (5-fluorouracil 750 mg, perarubicin 40 mg, cisplatin 20 mg) was performed again and an oral sorafenib therapy (400 mg, twice per day) was adopted. The disease maintained relatively stable for about 6 months until a second obvious progress. The gingival nodule was then palliatively excised and identified as a poorly differentiated metastatic HCC by histopathological examination. Best supportive treatments were made since the performance score was too bad. Finally, cerebral metastases occurred and the patient died of systemic failure. Upon review of previous reports, we discussed risk factors, clinical and pathological characteristics, treatments, and prognosis of gingival metastasis by HCC. Li-Jun Xue, Xiao-Bei Mao, Jian Geng, Ya-Nan Chen, Qian Wang, and Xiao-Yuan Chu Copyright © 2017 Li-Jun Xue et al. All rights reserved. Lung Volume Reduction following Recurrent Pneumonia: An Unusual Finding in a COPD Patient Wed, 08 Mar 2017 06:36:48 +0000 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive disease. Frequent pneumonias and exacerbations are known to accelerate its progression. We present a case of severe emphysema whose lung function paradoxically improved following recurrent pneumonia, without lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). A 54-year-old female with severe COPD presented for LVRS evaluation. She was not a candidate for the surgery because of the unsuitable anatomic distribution of her emphysema. The patient experienced recurrent pneumonia over the years but her lung function and oxygen requirement showed marked improvement. Follow-up imaging studies showed decreased lung volumes and focal fibrotic changes. We believe that the improvement in her lung function overtime is the reflection of lung volume reduction as a result of parenchymal remodeling due to repeated lung infection. These findings seen in our patient contribute important information for the continued effort in developing nonsurgical lung volume reduction techniques. Yihenew Negatu and Philip T. Diaz Copyright © 2017 Yihenew Negatu and Philip T. Diaz. All rights reserved. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Presenting with MPO-ANCA Associated Vasculitis and Aortic Dissection Mon, 06 Mar 2017 08:19:42 +0000 The combination of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, ANCA-vasculitis, and aortic aneurysm has been rarely described in literature. We report an eventually fatal case in a 70-year-old patient who initially presented with giant cell arteritis and ANCA associated glomerulonephritis. Several years later, he presented with aortic dissection due to large vessel vasculitis, raising the suspicion of AAT deficiency, as two first-line relatives had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, while they never smoked. This diagnosis was confirmed by AAT electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry on a temporal artery biopsy. Considering AAT deficiency in these cases might lead to a more timely diagnosis. Bram M. Voorzaat, Jan van Schaik, Stijn L. P. Crobach, Catharina S. P. van Rijswijk, and Joris I. Rotmans Copyright © 2017 Bram M. Voorzaat et al. All rights reserved.