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Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 7247235, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7247235
Case Report

Cognitive Impairments Preceding and Outlasting Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis

1Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
2Department of Psychiatry, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI 02903, USA
3Department of Neurology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown University School of Medicine, Providence, RI 02903, USA

Received 17 September 2015; Revised 10 December 2015; Accepted 16 December 2015

Academic Editor: Mathias Toft

Copyright © 2016 Robert Gross et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be the initial manifestation of autoimmune limbic encephalitis (ALE), a disorder that at times presents a diagnostic challenge. In addition to memory impairment, clinical features that might suggest this disorder include personality changes, agitation, insomnia, alterations of consciousness, and seizures. Once recognized, ALE typically responds to treatment with immune therapies, but long-term cognitive deficits may remain. We report two cases of patients with MCI who were ultimately diagnosed with ALE with antibodies against the voltage gated potassium channel complex. Months after apparent resolution of their encephalitides, both underwent neuropsychological testing, which demonstrated persistent cognitive deficits, primarily in the domains of memory and executive function, for cases 1 and 2, respectively. A brief review of the literature is included.