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Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 7528238, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7528238
Case Report

Septic Encephalopathy Characterized by Acute Encephalopathy with Biphasic Seizures and Late Reduced Diffusion and Early Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus

1Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children’s Hospital, 1-1-1 Takakuradai, Suma-Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 654-0081, Japan
2Department of Neurology, Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Children’s Hospital, 1-1-1 Takakuradai, Suma-Ku, Kobe, Hyogo 654-0081, Japan

Received 16 November 2015; Accepted 17 February 2016

Academic Editor: Massimiliano Filosto

Copyright © 2016 Hiroshi Yamaguchi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Infection, whether viral or bacterial, can result in various forms of brain dysfunction (encephalopathy). Septic encephalopathy (SE) is caused by an excessive immune reaction to infection, with clinical features including disturbed consciousness and seizures. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is usually accompanied by viral infection in children and is characterized by biphasic seizures and impaired consciousness. The initial neurologic symptom of AESD is typically a febrile seizure that frequently lasts longer than 30 minutes. However, the possible forms this seizure takes are unclear. For example, it is unknown if nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) could be an early seizure symptomatic of AESD. In addition, thus far no cases of combined SE and AESD have been reported. Here, we describe the first reported case of SE with AESD that notably demonstrated NCSE as an early seizure.