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Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Volume 2018, Article ID 2410154, 5 pages
Case Report

Ischemic Stroke in an HIV Positive Patient: An Initial Presentation of Neurosyphilis

1Department of Medicine, Changi General Hospital, Singapore
2Department of Infectious Diseases, Changi General Hospital, Singapore
3Department of Neurology, Changi General Hospital, Singapore
4National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore

Correspondence should be addressed to Kalimullah Jan; moc.oohay@9563naitahok

Received 29 September 2017; Accepted 21 January 2018; Published 13 February 2018

Academic Editor: Dominic B. Fee

Copyright © 2018 Kalimullah Jan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Ischemic stroke occurring in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) needs to be approached with a vast differential diagnosis in mind. We report a case of middle-aged male patient with immune reconstituted HIV on therapy without known cardiovascular risk factors who had a right middle cerebral artery territory infarct. After a thorough evaluation, he received a final diagnosis of neurosyphilis-associated vasculitis leading to stroke. He recovered without any neurological deficits following treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin. Neurosyphilis is an easily diagnosed and treatable cause of a stroke that can be an initial presentation of neurosyphilis but requires a high index of suspicion.