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Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2016, Article ID 2145937, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2145937
Case Report

Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy: Dual Case Report and Review of Literature

1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Bronx, NY 10451, USA
2West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine (WVSOM), Lewisburg, WV 24901, USA
3Department of Pathology, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Bronx, NY 10451, USA

Received 7 February 2016; Revised 22 May 2016; Accepted 1 June 2016

Academic Editor: Julio Rosa-e-Silva

Copyright © 2016 Annika Chadee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare complication usually seen in populations at risk for ectopic pregnancy or those undergoing fertility treatments. It is a potentially dangerous condition occurring in only 1 in 30,000 spontaneous pregnancies. With the advent of Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART) and ovulation induction, the overall incidence of heterotopic pregnancy has risen to approximately 1 in 3,900 pregnancies. Other risk factors include a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal damage, pelvic surgery, uterine Mullerian abnormalities, and prior tubal surgery. Heterotopic pregnancy is a potentially fatal condition, rarely occurring in natural conception cycles. Most commonly, heterotopic pregnancy is diagnosed at the time of rupture when surgical management is required. Case. This paper represents two cases of heterotopic pregnancies as well as a literature review. Conclusion. Heterotopic pregnancy should be suspected in patients with an adnexal mass, even in the absence of risk factors. Clinicians must be alert to the fact that confirming an intrauterine pregnancy clinically or by ultrasound does not exclude the coexistence of an ectopic pregnancy. A high index of suspicion in women is needed for early and timely diagnosis, and management with laparotomy or laparoscopy can result in a favorable and successful obstetrical outcome.