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Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2013, Article ID 504589, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/504589
Case Report

Benign Metastatic Leiomyoma Presenting as a Hemothorax

1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Montefiore Hospital, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10467, USA
2Department of Internal Medicine, Jacobi Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10461, USA
3Department of Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 50 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA

Received 14 May 2013; Accepted 28 June 2013

Academic Editors: K. Jamil and M. Ryberg

Copyright © 2013 Anna M. Ponea et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Uterine leiomyomas have been reported to metastasize to various organs including the lungs, skeletal muscles, bone marrow, peritoneum, and heart. They may present with symptoms related to the metastases several years after hysterectomy. These tumors regress after menopause, and it is rare to detect active tumors in postmenopausal women. Despite their ability to metastasize, they are considered to be benign due to the lack of anaplasia. Pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma is usually detected in the form of pulmonary nodules incidentally on imaging. Tissue biopsy of these nodules is required to identify them as benign metastasizing leiomyomas. Immunohistochemical analysis and molecular profiling may further help detect any malignant transformation in it. Untreated pulmonary benign metastasizing leiomyoma may result in the formation of cystic structures, destruction of lung parenchyma, and hemothorax and may cause respiratory failure. Surgical resection and hormonal therapy help prevent progression of this disease and provide an avenue for a cure.