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Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 5091021, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5091021
Case Report

Cardiac Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

1Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitario de La Candelaria, Carretera del Rosario No. 145, 38010 Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain
2Hematology Service, University Hospital Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife, Canarias, Spain
3Radiology Service, University Hospital Nuestra Señora de La Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Tenerife, Canarias, Spain

Received 10 June 2016; Accepted 31 July 2016

Academic Editor: Yoshihito Yokoyama

Copyright © 2016 María Facenda-Lorenzo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Secondary or metastatic cardiac tumors are much more common than primary benign or malignant cardiac tumors. Any tumor can cause myocardial or pericardial metastasis, although isolated or combined tumor invasion of the pericardium is more common. Types of neoplasia with the highest rates of cardiac or pericardial involvement are melanoma, lung cancer, and breast and mediastinal carcinomas. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults. Initial treatment involves chemotherapy followed by consolidation treatment to reduce the risk of relapse. In high-risk patients, the treatment of choice for consolidation is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Relapse of AML is the most common cause of HSCT failure. Extramedullary relapse is rare. The organs most frequently affected, called “sanctuaries,” are the testes, ovaries, and central nervous system. We present a case with extramedullary relapse in the form of a solid cardiac mass.