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Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 5235163, 4 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5235163
Case Report

Rituximab Monotherapy in the Management of a Rare Case of an HIV Associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Florida COM, Jacksonville, FL, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Jason Hew; moc.oohay@rukraht

Received 23 January 2017; Accepted 22 March 2017; Published 30 April 2017

Academic Editor: Jose I. Mayordomo

Copyright © 2017 Jason Hew et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Castleman’s disease (CD), also known as angiofollicular node hyperplasia, is a rare heterogenous lymphoproliferative disorder. This disease exists as two distinct entities: a localized or unicentric CD (UCD) which has a more benign clinical course and multicentric CD (MCD) which is a systemic disease and carries a worse prognosis. MCD is often associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and these patients are usually coinfected with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8). Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has become integral to the management of this disease. It is used alone or in combination with chemotherapy to treat MCD. Case Report. We describe a case of a 58-year-old man with HIV and HHV-8 MCD and evidence of organ failure with a poor performance status that went into complete remission after four cycles of therapy with weekly rituximab. Conclusion. HIV-MCD can be challenging to diagnose and to manage. Early recognition can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with the disease. Rituximab monotherapy can be used as a safe and effective treatment option in patients with a poor performance status.