Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
Volume 2018, Article ID 6137454, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6137454
Case Report

A Case of Chemotherapy-Refractory “THRLBCL like Transformation of NLPHL” Successfully Treated with Lenalidomide

MD Anderson Cooper Cancer Center, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Mamatha Siricilla; moc.liamg@allicirism

Received 30 October 2017; Accepted 6 December 2017; Published 6 February 2018

Academic Editor: Jose I. Mayordomo

Copyright © 2018 Mamatha Siricilla et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. H. Advani and R. T. Hoppe, “How I treat nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 122, no. 26, pp. 4182–4188, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. H. Stein, G. Delsol, S. Pileri et al., “Nodular lymphocyte predominant non Hodgkin lymphoma,” in Tumors of Haemotopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. WHO Classification of Tumors, E. S. Jaffe, N. L. Harris, H. Stein, and J. W. Vardiman, Eds., pp. 240–243, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  3. T. Marafioti, M. Hummel, I. Anagnostopoulos et al., “Origin of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s disease from a clonal expansion of highly mutated germinal-center B cells,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 7, pp. 453–458, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. T. Ohno, J. A. Stribley, G. Wu, S. H. Hinrichs, D. D. Weisenburger, and W. C. Chan, “Clonality in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 7, pp. 459–465, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. I. Wlodarska, P. Nooyen, B. Maes et al., “Frequent occurrence of BCL6 rearrangements in nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin lymphoma but not in classical Hodgkin lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 706–710, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. I. Anagnostopoulos, M. L. Hansmann, K. Franssila et al., “European Task Force on Lymphoma project on lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin disease: histologic and immunohistologic analysis of submitted cases reveals 2 types of Hodgkin disease with a nodular growth pattern and abundant lymphocytes,” Blood, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1889–1899, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  7. K. C. Gatter and R. A. warnke, “Diffuse large B cell lymphoma,” in Tumors of Haemopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. WHO Classification of Tumors, E. S. Jaffe, N. L. Harris, H. Stein, and J. W. Vardiman, Eds., pp. 171–174, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  8. E. Torlakovic, A. Tierens, H. D. Dang et al., “The transcription factor PU.1, necessary for B-cell development is expressed in lymphocyte predominance, but not classical Hodgkin’s disease,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 1807–1814, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A.-M. Mubarak, J. M. Connors, R. D. Gascoyne, B. Skinnider, and K. J. Savage, “Transformation to aggressive lymphoma in nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 793–799, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Rudiger, G. Ott, M. M. Ott, S. M. Müller-Deubert, and H. K. Müller-Hermelink, “Differential diagnosis between classic Hodgkin’s lymphoma, T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma, and paragranuloma by paraffin immunohistochemistry,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 1184–1191, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. V. Diehl, M. Sextro, J. Franklin et al., “Clinical presentation, course, and prognostic factors in lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s disease and lymphocyte-rich classical Hodgkin’s disease: report from the European Task Force on Lymphoma Project on Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin’s Disease,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 776–783, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. L. Nogova, T. Rudiger, and A. Engert, “Biology, clinical course and management of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma,” Hematology/The Education Program of the American Society of Hematology, vol. 2006, no. 1, pp. 266–272, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. P. Greer, W. R. Macon, R. E. Lamar et al., “T-cell-rich B-cell lymphomas: diagnosis and response to therapy of 44 patients,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1742–1750, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. I. N. Bagwan, G. Knee, Z. Abboudi, and K. N. Naresh, “Small intestinal presentation of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with T cell/histiocyte-rich B cell lymphoma-like areas—with review of literature on extranodal presentation of this disease,” Journal of Hematopathology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 29–34, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. Boudova, E. Torlakovic, J. Delabie et al., “Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with nodules resembling T-cell/histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma: differential diagnosis between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell/histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 3753–3758, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Z. Fan, Y. Natkunam, E. Bair, R. Tibshirani, and R. A. Warnke, “Characterization of variant patterns of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with immunohistologic and clinical correlation,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 1346–1356, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Bouabdallah, N. Mounier, C. Guettier et al., “T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphomas and classical diffuse large B-Cell lymphomas have similar outcome after chemotherapy: a matched-control analysis,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1271–1277, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. Rudiger, R. D. Gascoyne, E. S. Jaffe et al., “Workshop on the relationship between nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma and T cell/histiocyte-rich B cell lymphoma,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 44–51, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. H. Aki, N. Tuzuner, S. Ongoren et al., “T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 21 cases and comparison with 43 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,” Leukemia Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 229–236, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. Fraga, A. García-Rivero, L. Sánchez-Verde, J. Forteza, and M. A. Piris, “T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma is a disseminated aggressive neoplasm: differential diagnosis from Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Histopathology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 216–229, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. C. Chen, M. S. Chin, A. K. Ng et al., “Early-stage, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma: patient outcomes from a large, single-institution series with long follow-up,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 136–141, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Nogova, T. Reineke, H. T. Eich et al., “Extended field radiotherapy, combined modality treatment or involved field radiotherapy for patients with stage IA lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a retrospective analysis from the German Hodgkin Study Group (GHSG),” Annals of Oncology, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1683–1687, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. J. Schlembach, R. B. Wilder, D. Jones et al., “Radiotherapy alone for lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin’s disease,” Cancer Journal, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 377–383, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. B. Wilder, P. J. Schlembach, D. Jones et al., “European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d’Etude des Lymphomes de l’Adulte very favorable and favorable, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease,” Cancer, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1731–1738, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Wirth, K. Yuen, M. Barton et al., “Long-term outcome after radiotherapy alone for lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a retrospective multicenter study of the Australasian Radiation Oncology Lymphoma Group,” Cancer, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1221–1229, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. T. Sundeen, J. Cossman, and E. S. Jaffe, “Lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin’s disease nodular subtype with coexistent “large cell lymphoma”. Histological progression or composite malignancy?” American Journal of Surgical Pathology, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 599–606, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  27. J. Z. Huang, D. D. Weisenburger, J. M. Vose et al., “Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arising in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a report of 21 cases from the Nebraska Lymphoma Study Group,” Leukemia and Lymphoma, vol. 45, no. 8, pp. 1551–1557, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. O. Armitage, “How I treat patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma,” Blood, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 29–36, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. F. X. Zhao, “Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma or T-cell/histiocyte rich large B-cell lymphoma: the problem in “grey zone” lymphomas,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 300–305, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  30. S. Poppema, G. Delsol, S. A. Pileri et al., “Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma,” in WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues, S. H. Swerdlow, E. Campo, N. L. Harris et al., Eds., pp. 323–325, IARC, Lyon, France, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  31. S. H. Swerdlow, E. Campo, S. A. Pileri et al., “The 2016 revision of the World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms,” Blood, vol. 127, no. 20, pp. 2375–2390, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. V. Rets and S. R. S. Gottesman, “Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma versus T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma: diagnostic challenge,” Case Reports in Pathology, vol. 2014, Article ID 956217, 5 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. P. H. Wiernik, I. S. Lossos, J. M. Tuscano et al., “Lenalidomide monotherapy in relapsed or refractory aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 26, no. 30, pp. 4952–4957, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. E. Witzig, J. M. Vose, P. L. Zinzani et al., “An international phase II trial of single-agent lenalidomide for relapsed or refractory aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 22, no. 7, pp. 1622–1627, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. E. W. Thomas, P. H. Wiernik, T. Moore et al., “Lenalidomide oral monotherapy produces durable responses in relapsed or refractory indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 32, pp. 5404–5409, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Wang, N. Fowler, N. Wagner-Bartak et al., “Oral lenalidomide with rituximab in relapsed or refractory diffuse large cell, follicular and transformed lymphoma: a phase II clinical trial,” Leukemia, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1902–1909, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Morschhauser, O. Fitoussi, C. Haioun et al., “A phase 2, multicentre, single-arm, open-label study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of single-agent lenalidomide (Revlimid®) in subjects with relapsed or refractory peripheral T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma: The EXPECT trial,” European Journal of Cancer, vol. 49, no. 13, pp. 2869–2876, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Kritharis, M. Coyle, J. Sharma, and A. M. Evens, “Lenalidomide in non-Hodgkin lymphoma: biological perspectives and therapeutic opportunities,” Blood, vol. 125, no. 16, pp. 2471–2476, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. Chiappella, A. Tucci, A. Castellino et al., “Lenalidomide plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone and rituximab is safe and effective in untreated, elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a phase I study by the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi,” Haematologica, vol. 98, no. 11, pp. 1732–1738, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. S. Nowakowski, B. LaPlant, T. M. Habermann et al., “Lenalidomide can be safely combined with R-CHOP (R2CHOP) in the initial chemotherapy for aggressive B-cell lymphomas: phase I study,” Leukemia, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1877–1881, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. S. Nowakowski, C. B. Reeder, B. LaPlant et al., “Combination of lenalidomide with R-CHOP (R2CHOP) is well-tolerated and effective as initial therapy for aggressive B-cell lymphomas-a phase II study,” Blood, vol. 120, no. 21, p. 689, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  42. U. Vitolo, A. Chiappella, S. Franceschetti et al., “Lenalidomide plus R-CHOP21 in elderly patients with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of the REAL07 open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 730–737, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. F. J. Hernandez-Ilizaliturri, G. Deeb, P. L. Zinzani et al., “Higher response to lenalidomide in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in nongerminal center B-cell–like than in germinal center B-cell–like phenotype,” Cancer, vol. 117, no. 22, pp. 5058–5066, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Gaidarova, D. Mendy, C. Heise et al., “Lenalidomide induces capping of CD20 and cytoskeleton proteins to enhance rituximab immune recognition of malignant B-cells,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 21, p. 2845, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  45. R. E. Davis, K. D. Brown, U. Siebenlist, and L. M. Staudt, “Constitutive nuclear factor kappa B activity is required for survival of activated B cell-like diffuse large B cell lymphoma cells,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 194, no. 12, pp. 1861–1874, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. A. Dimopoulos, P. G. Richardson, N. Brandenburg et al., “A review of second primary malignancy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma treated with lenalidomide,” Blood, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 2764–2767, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus