Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine / 2016 / Article / Tab 1

Case Report

The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

Table 1

Comparison of diagnostic approaches for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Diagnostic modalityAdvantagesDisadvantages

Microbiological culture(i) Direct identification(i) Low sensitivity [1] 
(ii) Can take up to 1 week

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)(i) Specific
(ii) Fast
(i) Requires intact DNA [2] 
(ii) Not readily available

In vivo confocal microscopy(i) Immediate identification of double-walled cysts
(ii) Noninvasive
(i) Not readily available
(ii) Requires trained observer to recognize cysts in images [1]

Histopathology(i) Specific
(ii) Requires several days for diagnosis
(iii) Multiple stains and/or immunoperoxidase studies can be done
(i) Requires significant tissue (corneal biopsy or keratoplasty specimen)

Cytological smear(i) Minimally invasive
(ii) Identifies both empty and double-walled cyst
(iii) Fast
(iv) Biopsy easy to perform
(i) Organisms in deep stroma not easily represented

Electron microscopy(i) Specific(i) Requires weeks to process
(ii) Expensive and labor intensive
(iii) Practical only for small tissue samples

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