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Case Reports in Orthopedics
Volume 2015, Article ID 163812, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/163812
Case Report

Polyarticular Septic Arthritis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f in an 8-Month-Old Immunocompetent Infant: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

1Baylor College of Medicine, 4622 Rockton Hills Lane, Sugar Land, TX 77479, USA
2Infectious Disease, Texas Children’s Hospital, 1102 Bates, FC 1150, Houston, TX 77030, USA
3Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Texas Children’s Hospital, 6701 Fannin, Suite 660, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Received 24 November 2014; Accepted 20 April 2015

Academic Editor: Ali F. Ozer

Copyright © 2015 Raheel Ahmed Ali et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. The standard use of vaccinations against pathogens has resulted in a decreased incidence of musculoskeletal infections caused by these previously common bacterial pathogens. Consequently, the incidence of infections caused by atypical bacteria is rising. This report presents a case of septic arthritis caused by non-type b H. influenzae in a pediatric patient. Methods. We report a case of an infant with polyarticular septic arthritis caused by H. influenzae serotype f. A literature review was conducted with the inclusion criteria of case reports and studies published between 2004 and 2013 addressing musculoskeletal H. influenzae infections. Results. An 8-month-old female presented with pain and swelling in her right ankle and left elbow. The patient was diagnosed with septic arthritis and underwent incision and drainage. Wound and blood cultures were positive for Haemophilus influenzae serotype f. In addition to treatment with IV antibiotics, the patient underwent immunocompetency studies, which were normal. Subsequent follow-up revealed eradication of the infection. Conclusions. Haemophilus influenzae non-type b may cause serious invasive infections such as sepsis or septic arthritis in children with or without predisposing factors such as immunodeficiency or asplenia. Optimal treatment includes surgical management, culture driven IV antibiotics, and an immunologic workup.