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Case Reports in Orthopedics
Volume 2016, Article ID 2780295, 4 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2780295
Case Report

Gluteal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Trauma

Institute of Orthopaedics “Carlos E. Ottolenghi” Italian Hospital of Buenos Aires, C1199ACK Buenos Aires, Argentina

Received 27 March 2016; Revised 16 June 2016; Accepted 14 July 2016

Academic Editor: Andreas Panagopoulos

Copyright © 2016 Fernando Diaz Dilernia et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gluteal compartment syndrome (GCS) is extremely rare when compared to compartment syndrome in other anatomical regions, such as the forearm or the lower leg. It usually occurs in drug users following prolonged immobilization due to loss of consciousness. Another possible cause is trauma, which is rare and has only few reports in the literature. Physical examination may show tense and swollen buttocks and severe pain caused by passive range of motion. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed GCS after prolonged anterior-posterior pelvis compression. The physical examination revealed swelling, scrotal hematoma, and left ankle extension weakness. An unstable pelvic ring injury was diagnosed and the patient was taken to surgery. Measurement of the intracompartmental pressure was measured in the operating room, thereby confirming the diagnosis. Emergent fasciotomy was performed to decompress the three affected compartments. Trauma surgeons must be aware of the possibility of gluteal compartment syndrome in patients who have an acute pelvic trauma with buttock swelling and excessive pain of the gluteal region. Any delay in diagnosis or treatment can be devastating, causing permanent disability, irreversible loss of gluteal muscles, sciatic nerve palsy, kidney failure, or even death.