Case Reports in Otolaryngology / 2015 / Article / Tab 1

Case Report

Acute Contained Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as Left Vocal Fold Immobility

Table 1

High risk features for aneurysm rupture/dissection [4].

Historical features
(i) Pain (back, chest, and epigastrium)
(ii) Syncopal episode
(iii) Trauma (deceleration or torsional injury)
(iv) History of extreme exertion or emotional distress just prior to onset
(v) Pregnancy
(vi) Cocaine or other stimulants use
Past medical history
(i) Known thoracic aortic aneurysm
(ii) Known aortic valve disease
(iii) Hypertension (especially uncontrolled)
(iv) Bicuspid aortic valve
(v) Coarctation of the aorta
(vi) Aberrant right subclavian artery
(vii) Right aortic arch
(viii) Pheochromocytoma
(ix) Chronic corticosteroid or immunosuppression agent use
(x) Human immunodeficiency virus
(xi) Infections of aortic wall (bacteria, fungi, tuberculosis, and syphilis)
Past surgical history  
(i) Aortic valve replacement
(ii) Recent aortic manipulation (surgical or catheter-based)
Familial history of thoracic aortic disease
(i) Familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissection syndrome
(ii) Bicuspid aortic valve
Predisposing genetic syndromes
(i) Marfan syndrome
(ii) Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
(iii) Turner syndrome
(iv) Loeys-Dietz syndrome
(v) Polycystic kidney disease
(vi) Noonan syndrome
(vii) Alagille syndrome
(viii) Congenital contractural arachnodactyly
(ix) Beals syndrome
Predisposing inflammatory conditions
(i) Giant cell arteritis
(ii) Takayasu arteritis
(iii) Behçet disease
(iv) Ankylosing spondylitis

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