Case Reports in Otolaryngology https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Primary Small Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx: A Report of Two Cases and Review of Nine Additional Cases Wed, 19 Jul 2017 08:20:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/8143145/ Objective. Two patients with primary small cell carcinoma (SmCC) of the hypopharynx, an extremely rare site for the occurrence of SmCC, are reported and nine additional well-documented cases are reviewed. Methods. Case report and review of the literature concerning primary SmCC of the hypopharynx. Results. On the final analysis, we reviewed eleven cases of primary SmCC of the hypopharynx. The tumors contained mixed elements of SmCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in six (55%) of eleven patients. Out of eleven patients, two patients had distant metastasis at the initial presentation. Even though nine patients presented with locoregional disease, development of distant metastasis after treatment was seen in five patients (56%), whereas there was no report of treatment failure on the primary site. To achieve more than two-year survival, patients should have received more than 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Conclusion. We report two cases of primary SmCC of the hypopharynx with a review of the literature. In more than half of the cases, combined carcinomas with SCC are seen. Because this tumor has a strong propensity for distant metastasis even in patients with clinically localized tumor, new powerful systemic agents should be explored. Mitsuhiko Nakahira, Kiyomi Kuba, Satoko Matsumura, and Masashi Sugasawa Copyright © 2017 Mitsuhiko Nakahira et al. All rights reserved. The Youngest Reported and Successfully Treated Patient with a Dermoid Cyst of the Parotid Gland: A Rare Pediatric Case Sun, 16 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4187030/ Dermoid cysts (DCs) are rare benign, epithelial-lined lesions. Up to 7% of them are found in the head and neck region and 80% of those predominantly occur in the orbit, in the nose, and in the floor of the mouth. The average age of presentation is around the age of six. Dermoid cysts located in the parotid gland have only been published in 19 cases so far. Interestingly, the mean age of occurrence in the parotid gland was much higher (31 years). We report on a four-year-old girl being the youngest patient who had ever been diagnosed with this disease. Marcel Fabian Glaas, Jörg Schipper, Nelofar Kajasi, and Angelika Albrecht Copyright © 2017 Marcel Fabian Glaas et al. All rights reserved. Repetitive Sinus-Related Symptoms May Accelerate the Progression of Chronic Maxillary Atelectasis Mon, 03 Jul 2017 07:01:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4296195/ Chronic maxillary atelectasis (CMA) is characterized by a progressive decrease in maxillary sinus volume. The factors that promote the stage progression of CMA remain poorly understood. Here, we describe the time course of anatomical changes in a 40-year-old woman with stage II CMA that progressed to stage III disease. She did not show stage progression until she started to develop repetitive sinus-related symptoms. The stage progression was characterized by ocular symptoms. The repetitive inflammatory episodes may have increased the negative pressure in the affected sinus and weakened the bone walls, thereby promoting stage progression. Thus, a history of repetitive sinus-related symptoms may be a risk factor for stage progression in CMA. Shu Kikuta, Kyohei Horikiri, Kaori Kanaya, Ryoji Kagoya, Kenji Kondo, and Tatsuya Yamasoba Copyright © 2017 Shu Kikuta et al. All rights reserved. Tubercular Ulcer of Tongue in an Elderly Patient Masquerading as a Traumatic Ulcer Wed, 28 Jun 2017 09:01:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/8416963/ Tuberculosis is still one of the most prevalent diseases in developing countries like Nepal. However, due to the effectiveness of DOTS therapy, vaccination, and education, the prevalence of tuberculosis has fallen in recent years. Although the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, especially the tubercular lymphadenitis, is still very common in our country, the tuberculosis of oral cavity is an uncommon condition. We present a case of an elderly male who presented with the complaint of nonhealing ulcer of lateral border of tongue for 2-month duration which was masquerading as a traumatic ulcer due to sharp teeth adjacent to the lesion. Deep biopsy was taken under local anesthesia. Histopathological examination revealed that it was tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy was then started which cured the lesion. Ramesh Parajuli and Sushna Maharjan Copyright © 2017 Ramesh Parajuli and Sushna Maharjan. All rights reserved. Large Cholesterol Granuloma of the Middle Ear Eroding into the Middle Cranial Fossa Thu, 22 Jun 2017 06:31:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4793786/ Background. Cholesterol granuloma of the middle ear is extremely rare in comparison to cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex but sometimes shows an aggressive course. Case Report. We report herein a case involving a large, aggressive cholesterol granuloma of the middle ear that eroded the middle cranial fossa. A 64-year-old woman presented with pain in the left ear and hearing loss. Cholesterol granuloma was finally diagnosed from diffusion-weighted imaging, and cortical mastoidectomy was performed with canal wall down tympanoplasty type III. Recovery was uneventful recovery and the patient well at the 3-year follow-up. Conclusion. This case demonstrates the rare but clinically important pathology of aggressive cholesterol granuloma of the middle ear. Tessei Kuruma, Tohru Tanigawa, Yasue Uchida, Ogawa Tetsuya, and Hiromi Ueda Copyright © 2017 Tessei Kuruma et al. All rights reserved. Vagal Paraganglioma Presenting as a Neck Mass Associated with Cough on Palpation Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/7603814/ A 70-year-old female presented with a neck mass and sporadic dry cough, often leading to fits of coughing severe enough to cause vomiting. The patient reported that touching the mass triggered the cough. On examination, a 2.5 cm right-sided level two neck mass deep to the sternocleidomastoid was present. Palpation of the mass immediately triggered coughing. Cross-sectional imaging proposed vagal paraganglioma as the chief differential, which was confirmed following surgical excision. The patient reported complete resolution of her severe dry cough after surgery. Vagal paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors arising from the neural crest-derived paraganglionic tissue surrounding the vagus nerve, typically presenting as a neck mass associated with hoarseness or pulsatile tinnitus. To the best of our knowledge this is a unique description in the English literature. This case is presented to aid physicians should they encounter a neck mass associated with cough. Vagal paraganglioma, although rare, should be part of the differential in such a presentation. Richard Heyes, Nizar Taki, and Miriam A. O’Leary Copyright © 2017 Richard Heyes et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Werner Syndrome and Sinonasal Malignant Melanoma: Two Sibling Cases of Werner Syndrome with Malignant Melanoma Thu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/9361612/ Werner syndrome (WS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by premature aging. Malignant tumors such as thyroid carcinoma and malignant melanoma occur frequently in WS patients. We describe 2 siblings with WS who suffered from sinonasal malignant melanoma (MM). Both patients initially experienced nasal obstruction and recurrent nasal bleeding and died within 2 years of the diagnosis of MM. Otolaryngologists should recognize that WS patients have a high risk for head and neck malignant disease, particularly sinonasal MM, even if they are aged below the expected age range and undergo periodic examinations. Furthermore, it is important that WS patients are aware that a prompt nasal examination is indicated if they experience continuous nasal obstruction or recurrent nasal bleeding. Yoshinori Kadowaki, Satoru Kodama, Munehito Moriyama, and Masashi Suzuki Copyright © 2017 Yoshinori Kadowaki et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Cause of Upper Airway Obstruction in a Child Tue, 13 Jun 2017 08:07:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/2017265/ Ventricular band cyst is a rare condition in children but can result in severe upper airway obstruction with laryngeal dyspnea or death. The diagnosis should be considered in any stridor in children with previous history of intubation or respiratory infections. We report a case of a 4-year-old girl, received in an array of severe respiratory distress, emergency endoscopy was done, and a large ventricular tape band cyst obstructing the air way was found. Complete excision was made, and postoperative prophylaxis tracheotomy was done. The postoperative course was uneventful with improvement of clinical and endoscopic signs. H. Ahmed, C. Ndiaye, M. W. Barry, Aliou Thiongane, A. Mbaye, Y. Zemene, and I. C. Ndiaye Copyright © 2017 H. Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms Underlying Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome by Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty Tue, 06 Jun 2017 09:28:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/2120165/ In a previous case report, we determined for the first time that uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) does not change the volume of the upper airway but causes morphological changes in the entire upper airway. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the improvement in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) by UPPP. We present an additional case involving a patient with OSAS treated using UPPP. Morphological and numerical parameter changes after surgery were compared with the corresponding preoperative values. Anatomically accurate upper airway computational models were reconstructed from computed tomographic imaging data. In addition, computed fluid dynamics analysis was performed to reveal inhalation flow characteristics before and after UPPP and clearly assess the effect of UPPP on airflow patterns in the patient’s upper airway. An important benefit of UPPP is the morphological changes in the entire upper airway, in addition to widening the restricted area. These morphological changes induce laminarization of the pharyngeal jet. To obtain sufficient efficacy of UPPP in OSAS, the morphological changes in the upper airway and the airflow pattern after the surgery must be controlled. Takahisa Yamamoto, Naoko Fujii, Yoichi Nishimura, Noboru Iwata, and Seiichi Nakata Copyright © 2017 Takahisa Yamamoto et al. All rights reserved. Aspiration of Aluminum Beverage Can Tab: Case Report and Literature Review Sun, 28 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/1010975/ We describe the case of a 16-year-old male who aspirated a beverage can tab resulting in significant functional impairment. Since the introduction of beverage can opening tabs (“pop-tops” or “pull-tabs”) nearly 50 years ago, five cases of their aspiration have been reported in the literature and this is the first case to report tracheal lodgment. We describe the clinical course for this patient including the inadequacy of radiographic evaluation and a significant delay in diagnosis. We highlight unique features of small aluminum foreign bodies that require consideration and mention a potential change in epidemiology associated with evolving product design. Our primary objective is increased awareness among otolaryngologists that radiography is unreliable for diagnosis or localization of small aluminum foreign bodies. The patient history must therefore be incorporated with other imaging modalities and/or endoscopic evaluation. Also, given the marked prevalence of aluminum beverage cans, we suspect that the inadvertent aspiration of can tabs is more common than indicated by the paucity of published reports. Alhasan N. Elghouche, Brian C. Lobo, and Jonathan Y. Ting Copyright © 2017 Alhasan N. Elghouche et al. All rights reserved. Sudden Onset, Rapidly Expansile, Cervical Cystic Hygroma in an Adult: A Rare Case with Unusual Presentation and Extensive Review of the Literature Wed, 24 May 2017 09:18:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/1061958/ Cystic hygroma (CH) is a benign infiltrative malformation of the lymphatic channels. We report a case of a 28-year-old Indian female who presented with rapidly enlarging right sided neck swelling over the posterior triangle since 5 days. Complete resection of CH is sometimes not amenable because of its infiltrative nature and involvement of surrounding vital structures. However, in our patient successful complete surgical resection was undertaken. The MRI findings of our patient were consistent with brachial cleft cyst; this posed a challenge in the diagnosis of CH. The histopathological analysis of the resected mass confirmed CH. CH is rare in adults and such an acute presentation is exceptionally atypical. History of prior trauma and infection are known etiological factors for adult CH; these were conspicuously absent in our patient. CH should be considered in the differentials of rapidly enlarging cystic swelling of posterior region of neck in adults. Optimal and timely management is necessary to achieve a favorable prognosis. Therefore, we report a case of rapidly enlarging cervical CH in an adult along with extensive literature review to have a better understanding regarding epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, optimal management, and prognosis of such a rare entity in adults. Vivek Dokania, Anagha Rajguru, Harmanjot Kaur, Ketan Agarwal, Sujata Kanetkar, Prajakta Thakur, Femina Patel, and Dhirajkumar Shukla Copyright © 2017 Vivek Dokania et al. All rights reserved. Vestibular Derangement and Motion Intolerance in VATER Association Mon, 22 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4507323/ VATER association is a nonrandom occurrence of congenital malformations: vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal defects, and radial bone anomalies. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with a childhood diagnosis of VATER association, who presented to the motion sickness clinic with severe seasickness. We discuss the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of vestibular pathophysiology, which was confirmed by MRI of lateral semicircular canal and vestibule dysplasia. We suggest the possibility of vestibular involvement as part of the developmental field defect associated with VATER syndrome, which hitherto has rarely been reported. Orit Samuel, Avi Shupak, Ayelet Eran, and Dror Tal Copyright © 2017 Orit Samuel et al. All rights reserved. Unilateral Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome and Bilateral Endolymphatic Hydrops Thu, 18 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/6195317/ Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) syndrome is a common congenital inner ear malformation characterized by a vestibular aqueduct with a diameter larger than 1.5 mm, mixed or sensorineural hearing loss that ranges from mild to profound, and vestibular disorders that may be present with a range from mild imbalance to episodic objective vertigo. In our study, we present the case of a patient with unilateral enlarged vestibular aqueduct and bilateral endolymphatic hydrops (EH). EH was confirmed through anamnestic history and audiological exams; EVA was diagnosed using high-resolution CT scans and MRI images. Therapy included intratympanic infusion of corticosteroids with a significant hearing improvement, more evident in the ear contralateral to EVA. Although most probably unrelated, EVA and EH may present with similar symptoms and therefore the diagnostic workup should always include the proper steps to perform a correct diagnosis. Association between progression of hearing loss and head trauma in patients with a diagnosis of EVA syndrome is still uncertain; however, these individuals should be advised to avoid activities that increase intracranial pressure to prevent further hearing deterioration. Intratympanic treatment with steroids is a safe and well-tolerated procedure that has demonstrated its efficacy in hearing, tinnitus, and vertigo control in EH. Massimo Ralli, Giuseppe Nola, Luca Sparvoli, and Giovanni Ralli Copyright © 2017 Massimo Ralli et al. All rights reserved. High-Grade Transformation (Dedifferentiation) of Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Parotid Gland: Report of an Unusual Variant Sun, 14 May 2017 06:10:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/7296467/ Acinic cell carcinoma with high-grade transformation of the salivary gland is an unusual variant with less than fifty cases being reported in the literature. It is characterized by a low- and high-grade component juxtaposed with one another and tends to take on a more aggressive clinical course than its low-grade counterpart, suggesting a poor clinical outcome. We, hereby, report a case of acinic cell carcinoma in a 48-year-old woman with a 6-month history of a right parotid facial swelling rapidly increasing in size. The tumor was initially resected; however, residual focal tissue subsequently revealed areas typical of low-grade acinic cell carcinoma as well as high-grade transformation/dedifferentiation via histopathology. Sarah S. Al-Otaibi, Faiza Alotaibi, Yaseer Al Zaher, Nabil Al Zaher, and M. A. Dababo Copyright © 2017 Sarah S. Al-Otaibi et al. All rights reserved. Temporary Frontal Paralysis Secondary to Blunt Trauma Frontal Sinus Fracture Wed, 10 May 2017 07:34:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4268259/ Frontal sinus fractures (FSF) are relatively uncommon and can be challenging for trauma surgeons to manage. Patients with FSF typically present with facial swelling, pain, and nasofrontal ecchymosis. Here we present a rare case of a patient with FSF and anterior table fracture where the main presenting symptom was bilateral frontal paralysis. We outline our management strategy and review the current literature in regard to management of FSF. Mark Bastianelli, Stefan Hamilton, Matthew Hearn, Safeena Kherani, and Kristian I. Macdonald Copyright © 2017 Mark Bastianelli et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Challenges in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Temporal Bone Osteomyelitis Sun, 09 Apr 2017 07:50:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4097973/ Temporal bone osteomyelitis is a serious life-threatening condition—a quick and proper diagnosis is needed to start treatment and reduce morbidity and mortality. Changing trends of the disease make a differential diagnosis difficult. To emphasize the importance of a clinical suspicion of this dangerous condition, our experience with three difficult cases is presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, otoscopic findings, and findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Neoplasm and granulomatous inflammation were excluded by multiple biopsies. The disease can develop in nondiabetic patients. The disorder might be related to the initial inflammatory process in the middle ear with further direct spreading of infection through defects in the bony walls to deep temporal bone structures. Imaging should be performed early to detect osteolytic lesions of the skull base. Surgery was used for the presence of bone sequestra and infratemporal abscess. Liubov Kornilenko, Saulius Rocka, Svajunas Balseris, and Irina Arechvo Copyright © 2017 Liubov Kornilenko et al. All rights reserved. Nontraumatic Laryngeal Fractures: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature Sun, 09 Apr 2017 07:16:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/2153521/ Laryngeal fractures occur mainly in the context of cervical trauma, hanging, or strangulation. Nontraumatic laryngeal fractures are rare and there are few reports in the literature. We present two cases of nontraumatic laryngeal fractures evaluated in our service. Alfredo Santamaría, Ricardo Alarcón, Ilson Sepúlveda, and Felipe Fredes Copyright © 2017 Alfredo Santamaría et al. All rights reserved. Atypical Pharyngeal Pouch Arising Bilaterally between the Hyoid Bone and Thyroid Cartilage Wed, 05 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/3515438/ Introduction. Pharyngoesophageal diverticuli are a common cause of dysphagia; they are associated with various morbidities and a decreased quality of life. There are several different types of the diverticuli, and they are divided based on the anatomical location of origin relative to the cricopharyngeal muscle; these include Zenker’s, Killian-Jamieson’s, and Laimer’s diverticula. The authors present a unique case of pharyngoesophageal diverticulum that has not been previously described. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 12-month history of dysphagia and odynophagia for solids. Barium swallow revealed bilateral moderately sized diverticuli that altered in size during the different phases of swallow. CT scan of the neck with oral contrast further identified the anatomy of the diverticuli, arising between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. Discussion. An external transcervical approach was utilised to successfully repair the diverticuli. Subsequent cricopharyngeal spasm was treated with botulinum toxin, and the patient recovered with no ongoing symptoms. The barium swallow study is a commonly utilised initial investigation as it is easy to perform and safe and has good diagnostic value. Definitive management usually involves either endoscopic or open surgery. This case depicts a unique case of a pharyngeal diverticulum arising between the hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage. Lawrence J. Oh, Lyndon Chan, and David Veivers Copyright © 2017 Lawrence J. Oh et al. All rights reserved. Technical Feasibility of Acoustic Coordinated Reset Therapy for Tinnitus Delivered via Hearing Aids: A Case Study Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/5304242/ Primary tinnitus has a severe negative influence on the quality of life of a substantial portion of the general population. When acoustic coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation stimuli are delivered for several hours per day over several weeks a clinically significant symptom reduction in patients with primary tonal tinnitus has been reported by several clinical sites. Here, we reported the first case where CR neuromodulation was delivered through a hearing aid. A 52-year-old man with chronic primary tonal tinnitus was previously considered untreatable with sound therapy. He initially received the classic CR treatment protocol with signals delivered with the separate proprietary device with his hearing aids removed during treatment. He was subsequently treated with the therapy being deployed through a set of contemporary hearing aids. After 5 months of classic CR treatment with the separate custom device, the THI and VASL/A scores worsened by 57% and 13%/14%, respectively. Using the hearing aid without CR treatment for 5 months no change in tinnitus symptoms was observed. However, after three months of CR treatment delivered through the hearing aids, the THI and VASL/A scores were reduced by 70% and 32%/32%, respectively. Christian Hauptmann, Mark Williams, Federica Vinciati, and Markus Haller Copyright © 2017 Christian Hauptmann et al. All rights reserved. Septic Arthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint Secondary to Acute Otitis Media in an Adult: A Rare Case with Achromobacter xylosoxidans Tue, 28 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/3641642/ Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (SATMJ) is a rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM) with only four reported cases in the English and Japanese literature. Based on the unusual nature of this clinical condition, we discuss the first documented case due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans and the utility of myringotomy with long-term intravenous antibiotics via a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC). We describe the case of a 76-year-old male patient that was brought in by ambulance to the accident and emergency (A&E) department due to severe right-sided otalgia with increased hearing impairment. A clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media with sepsis was made and the patient was commenced on the sepsis protocol. He then developed symptoms of septic arthritis of the TMJ which was confirmed on radiological imaging. After a multidisciplinary team discussion, the patient was treated with a myringotomy and intravenous ceftriaxone for 8 weeks in the community via a PICC rather than TMJ arthrocentesis with positive outcomes at 3 months’ follow-up. Ryan Chin Taw Cheong and Laura Harding Copyright © 2017 Ryan Chin Taw Cheong and Laura Harding. All rights reserved. Spontaneous Iliopsoas Hematoma following Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer Sun, 26 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/7631673/ Spontaneous hematoma within the iliopsoas muscle (SIH) is a rare complication most commonly seen in coagulopathic patients. Often, patients undergoing microvascular free tissue transfer are anticoagulated for anastomotic patency. Here we describe two cases of postoperative SIH following contralateral anterolateral thigh (ALT) free tissue transfer for reconstruction of oncologic head and neck defects. Both patients described hip pain after mobilization and had a corresponding acute blood loss anemia. Diagnosis of SIH was confirmed by CT and both patients were managed conservatively. Given that anticoagulation is a common practice following head and neck free tissue transfer, surgeons should be aware of this potential complication. Jeffrey D. Markey, A. Sean Alemi, Margaret L. Naunheim, Daniel L. Faden, Chase M. Heaton, and Rahul Seth Copyright © 2017 Jeffrey D. Markey et al. All rights reserved. Perioperative Anaphylaxis to Chlorhexidine during Surgery and Septoplasty Sun, 19 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/9605804/ Chlorhexidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant used in surgical and clinical practice since 1954 and is available in aqueous or alcoholic solutions 0.5%–4.0% and has a broad-spectrum activity. Despite their widespread use, allergic reactions with chlorhexidine are rarely reported. We describe a case of anaphylaxis with chlorhexidine during a septoplasty, turbinectomy, and maxillary sinusectomy. The patient presented with periorbital edema, hives, hypotension, and wheezing. Immediately after the diagnosis of anaphylaxis promethazine, hydrocortisone, and epinephrine were administered with immediate clinical improvement. This case highlights the importance of assessing whether there is a previous clinical history of hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine in patients who will undergo surgical procedures. Ana Paula Teixeira de Abreu, Leonardo Ramos Ribeiro de Oliveira, Ana Flavia Teixeira de Abreu, Evandro Ribeiro de Oliveira, Michele Santos de Melo Ireno, Fernando Monteiro Aarestrup, Matheus Fonseca Aarestrup, and Paula Fonseca Aarestrup Copyright © 2017 Ana Paula Teixeira de Abreu et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Bedside Vestibuloocular Reflex Evaluation in the Setting of a False Negative Fistula Test in Cholesteatoma of the Middle Ear Mon, 13 Mar 2017 07:22:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/2919463/ Background. False negative fistula testing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media is a dilemma when proceeding to surgery. It is imperative to rule out a dead labyrinth or a mass effect secondary to the cholesteatoma in an otherwise normally functioning inner ear. We present a case series of three patients in whom a bedside vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evaluation using a head impulse test was used successfully for further evaluation prior to surgery. Results. In all three cases with a false negative fistula test we were able to further evaluate at the bedside and were not only able to register the abnormal VOR but also localize its deterioration to a particular semicircular canal eroded by the fistula. Conclusion. Vestibuloocular reflex evaluation is mandatory in patients with suspected labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma of the middle ear before proceeding to surgery. We demonstrate successful use of a bedside head impulse test for further evaluation prior to surgery in patients with false negative fistula test. Ricardo D’Albora, Ligia Silveira, Sergio Carmona, and Nicolas Perez-Fernandez Copyright © 2017 Ricardo D’Albora et al. All rights reserved. Unilateral Maxillary Sinus Actinomycosis with a Closed Oroantral Fistula Thu, 02 Mar 2017 09:32:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/7568390/ Actinomycosis is a bacterial infection due to Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive, anaerobic organism that normally affects the cervicofacial region. However, facial injury or trauma (i.e., dental procedures) can allow this bacteria to inhabit other regions. There have been rare reports of actinomycosis of the paranasal sinuses. We present a case of a 50-year-old female who originally presented with a suspected oroantral fistula who subsequently was found to have actinomycosis involving her right maxillary sinus. Additionally, the dental extraction site revealed no connection with the maxillary sinus. We discuss the diagnostic approach and management of this patient as it relates to the limited existing literature. Jason E. Cohn, Mark Lentner, Hui Li, and Matthew Nagorsky Copyright © 2017 Jason E. Cohn et al. All rights reserved. Osteoradionecrosis of the Temporal Bone Leading to Cerebellar Abscess Thu, 23 Feb 2017 06:01:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/7054943/ Squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone is a rare and destructive malignancy and represents both diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The complex regional anatomy of the temporal bone requires equally intricate surgical techniques to adequately resect the tumour mass during surgical excision. Adjuvant radiotherapy is offered to patients with advanced disease and has been showed to confer a survival benefit in carefully selected patients. One feared complication of radiotherapy is osteoradionecrosis and is a major obstacle faced in the treatment of head and neck cancers. The case presented here is a rare example of a patient who was successfully treated for SCC of the temporal with both surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy who subsequently developed two major complications: first, osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone that leads to penetrating osteomyelitis; second, the formation of a large cerebellar abscess that required surgical drainage. This case is a rare example of the complications that are possible following radiotherapy to the head and the close follow-up that is required in patients. Thomas B. Layton Copyright © 2017 Thomas B. Layton. All rights reserved. Paranasal Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Osseous Destruction Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/1453097/ Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology typically characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal involvement often manifests in the head and neck region. We present a 10-year-old male who presented to our hospital with left epiphora from an aggressive paranasal mass invading the left orbit with osseous destruction. The mass was surgically biopsied and debulked with histopathological examination revealing Rosai-Dorfman disease. Although rarely found in the sinuses, Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered when evaluating sinonasal masses. Kevin Hur, Changxing Liu, and Jeffrey A. Koempel Copyright © 2017 Kevin Hur et al. All rights reserved. Acute Vision Loss Following Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Mon, 13 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/4935123/ A 41-year-old female with a history of uterine cancer and Celiac and Raynaud’s Disease presented to our institution with frequent migraines and nasal congestion. She underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and experienced acute unilateral vision loss postoperatively. Rapid recognition of the etiology and effective treatment are paramount given the permanent and irreversible vision loss that can result. Arterial vasospasm following FESS is rare. Patients with autoimmune diseases have perhaps an increased risk for vasospasm secondary to an increased vasoreactive profile. We present the first documented case of nitroglycerin sublingual therapy to successfully treat ophthalmic artery vasospasm following FESS. Nitroglycerin sublingual therapy is a promising treatment for ophthalmic vasospasm secondary to its ability to cross the blood-ocular barrier, its rapid onset of action, and its ability to promote relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Serena Byrd, Adnan S. Hussaini, and Jastin Antisdel Copyright © 2017 Serena Byrd et al. All rights reserved. Synovial Sarcoma of the Larynx: Report of a Case and Review of Literature Thu, 09 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/6134845/ Sarcomas account for less than 1% of malignant neoplasms arising in the head and neck in adults. Laryngeal synovial sarcoma is an extremely rare form of laryngeal malignancy with less than 20 cases reported in the literature. We report the case of a 48-year-old man with synovial sarcoma of the larynx. He underwent excision of the tumor followed by radiation. He is alive in remission at 36 months. The literature on synovial sarcoma of the larynx is reviewed. Geetha Narayanan, Anto Baby, Thara Somanathan, and Sreedevi Konoth Copyright © 2017 Geetha Narayanan et al. All rights reserved. A Lip Lump: An Unexpected Histological Diagnosis of a Lip Schwannoma Tue, 07 Feb 2017 11:12:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/3107362/ Schwannomas are benign nerve sheath tumours arising from Schwann cells. They comprise 1% of all benign tumours. In the 2016 World Health Organisation Classification of Central Nervous System, they are classified as a tumour of the cranial and paraspinal nerves, Schwannoma 9560/0. A 23-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a seven-month history of a painless right upper lip lump. Examination revealed a small cystic 0.5 cm diameter lesion within the right upper lip. The clinical impression was that of a mucocele. Excision of the lip lesion was performed under local anaesthetic. Histological examination of the excised lesion demonstrated a circumscribed nodule consisting of spindle cells mixed with vascular spaces containing red blood cells and fibrin. Immunohistochemistry for S100 was strongly positive. The findings were consistent with that of a small benign schwannoma. The current consensus is for surgical excision of a conservative nature with no need for margins. If recurrence does occur one needs to consider whether complete enucleation was achieved or whether malignant transformation has occurred. Thomas Haigh, John Raad Glore, David Gouldesbrough, and Winson Wong Copyright © 2017 Thomas Haigh et al. All rights reserved. Laryngeal Fracture after Blunt Cervical Trauma in Motorcycle Accident and Its Management Thu, 02 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/criot/2017/9321975/ Laryngeal fracture is a rare traumatic injury, potentially fatal, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 30,000 patients admitted to severe trauma centers. Because of the rarity of this injury, physician may be not aware of its existence, leading to a late diagnosis of this entity. We report a case of a 59-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room after a motorcycle accident with cervical trauma. The patient presented with dysphonia, hemoptysis, cervical subcutaneous emphysema, and increasing respiratory distress that led to the intubation of the patient. CT-scan demonstrated displaced fracture of the cricoid and thyroid cartilage. The patient was submitted to tracheostomy and the fracture was surgically repaired. Tracheostomy was removed in third postoperative month. The patient presented a good recovery, reporting only hoarseness but without swallowing or breathing problems at 6-month follow-up. Nuno Ribeiro-Costa, Pedro Carneiro Sousa, Diogo Abreu Pereira, Paula Azevedo, and Delfim Duarte Copyright © 2017 Nuno Ribeiro-Costa et al. All rights reserved.