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Case Reports in Pathology
Volume 2019, Article ID 1582714, 5 pages
Case Report

Superficial Myofibroblastoma in the Vulva Mimicking Aggressive Angiomyxoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

1Department of Integrated Diagnostic Pathology, Nippon Medical School, Japan
2Department of Pathology, Misato Kenwa Hospital, Japan
3Department of Pathology, Shinyurigaoka General Hospital, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Wei-Xia Peng;

Received 1 February 2019; Revised 22 April 2019; Accepted 9 May 2019; Published 26 May 2019

Academic Editor: Stefan Pambuccian

Copyright © 2019 Wei-Xia Peng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background: Superficial myofibroblastoma (SMF) is a very rare benign mesenchymal tumor in the female lower genital tract. Only 46 cases have been reported in the English language literature, among which only 7 cases arose in the vulva. Sometimes SMF histologically mimics aggressive angiomyxoma (AA) in which massive myxoid change in stroma is characteristic. We herein report a case of vulvar SMF with prominent myxoid stroma and review the literature with the emphasis on the differential diagnosis of SMF and AA. Case presentation: a 37-year-old woman presented with a painless mass in the vulva. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a well-circumscribed 7 cm mass in the subcutis of the vulva. The tumor was resected. Histopathologically, the tumor was characterized by sparsely populated spindle-shaped cells in the fibromyxoid stroma. Thin-walled blood vessels were detected. Mitoses or pleomorphism was not found. Tumor cells were positive for vimentin, ER, PgR, and desmin. Some cells were positive for alpha-SMA and CD34. All cells were negative for S100 protein. Conclusions: because SMF and AA show different clinical prognoses, distinguishing SMF from AA is important. However, SMF may share many common histological features with AA: superficial localization (above fascia), sharp borderline from adjacent tissue, expansive growth pattern; a specific vascular pattern will lead to an accurate diagnosis of SMF. Familiarization with the histological characteristics of the two entities will help to make a prognostic prediction.